Why is Catalonia separated from Spain?
Catalonia is a historical region in northern Spain. Recently, news feeds, Internet headlines are full of messages "Catalonia is separated from Spain." The conflict has lasted for more than one century. To understand why Catalonia wants to secede from Spain, it is advisable to study the historical past of these regions.
Catalonia in antiquity and in the Middle Ages
BC, the first settlers of the current Catalonia were the Iberians - people from Africa. Later the Greeks come here. In the twelfth century AD, the Carthaginians arrive. After the invasion of the Romans, the Carthaginians signed a peace treaty with them, by which they renounced their possessions. So here appeared the Roman colonies. The decline of the Roman Empire could not but affect Catalonia. The enemies immediately noticed a weakened colony. After numerous raids, the German tribes appropriated Catalonia.
Despite the constant change of owners, Rome had a greater influence on Catalonia.Land development, cultivation of cereals and grapes, engineering structures - all this happened during the reign of Rome. The first cities were also founded in the era of Roman rule. We are talking about Barcelona, Tarragona and others.
In the Middle Ages, the Visigoths (Germanic tribes) completely captured Catalonia. This time is characterized by constant wars and conflicts. The Middle Ages was also a time of Arabic possession.
In the period from 732 to 987, the Catalonia was ruled by the Frankish dynasty of the Carolingians. Already in 988, the Catalans completely got rid of the Franks, and in modern history consider this date the year of the foundation of Catalonia.
After the collapse of the Spanish Mark (an area which included Catalonia), the Barcelona authorities represented the government in Catalonia. At this time, in the twelfth century, the name Catalania first appeared in the documents.
Catalonia later became the kingdom of Aragon. In 1516 the unification of the two kingdoms - Castile and Aragon - was formed the Spanish kingdom, and Catalonia became part of it. The center of the economy of Spain moved to the Atlantic, and Catalonia faded into the background, began to decline in all areas.
In 1640, after the uprising, the Catalan Republic was proclaimed under the protectorate of France, but after fifteen months the independence ended. In 1652, Spain returned Catalonia to its structure, but the territories, which are now North Catalonia, withdrew to France.
New Catalonia in the 18th and 20th centuries
Not passed by Catalonia and Napoleon. In 1808, it was occupied by the troops of General Duhem. Until 1814, Catalonia was under French control. In the nineteenth century, the Carlisian Wars and the September Revolution of 1868 took place on these lands. In the second half of the nineteenth century, a period of rebirth began. Catalonia became the center of the industrialization of Spain.
Catalonia in the 20th and 21st centuries
In the 1930s, the Civil War prevented Catalonia from proclaiming independence. In 1979, Catalonia received the status of autonomy and recognition of the Catalan language. In 2006, financial autonomy was added to everything else.
Analyzing the history of Catalonia, we note that this area was in constant struggle with anyone's domination, and today's desire to secede is another attempt by the people of Catalonia to declare their independence and uniqueness.
Catalonia wants to secede from Spain. Historical reasons
The prehistory of the separation of Catalonia from Spain is inextricably linked directly to the history of this region. The reasons for the separation of Catalonia from Spain should be sought in the birth and development of nationalist movements in this region for a long time.
Initially, the device of Catalonia was the first among the rest. Already in the thirteenth century, a caste representative body was established here - Corts Catalanas, a sort of parliament. This is a kind of counterbalance to royal power.
Already during the reign of the Spanish monarchy, the Catalans had separatist sentiments. They used to live apart, autonomously. The aforementioned “war of the reapers” is a confirmation of the unwillingness of the people to live under someone’s protectorate.
The rapid development of social and economic spheres in the second half of the nineteenth century, again, isolated Catalonia. Its economic power seemed to resist in the whole of Spain.
In 1901, the nationalists created a party called the Regionalist League, which was supported by the masses. In 1914, Madrid allowed the creation of Mancomunitat, an autonomous body, which united Barcelona, Gerona, Tarragon, Lleida. So again the Catalans confirmed their identity.
After World War II, publications appeared in the Catalan language. Cultural and language policy has become another reason for the modern separation of Catalonia from Spain. New rights and freedoms of Catalonia received under the Constitution of 1978. Radio, television, parliament, police have become independent and independent in the region.
Why is Catalonia separated from Spain if the region already has enough independence from the central government? This is still not enough, the people demand self-determination.
Catalonia is separated from Spain. Modernity
In 2009 and 2010, members of the Catalonia independence movement held referendums on segregation and sovereignty. In the above referendums, about ninety percent of the inhabitants of the region favored this position.
In 2012, in the elections in Catalonia, supporters of independence won, therefore, they began to further pursue their policies in this direction. In 2014, a referendum was prepared with the main question of secession from Spain. But the government of Spain did not want it to take place, in the end they talked about the political future of Catalonia, and not about sovereignty.
In 2015, the elections to the Parliament of Catalonia, the winners initiated the process of forming an independent state.
At the end of 2015, the parliament voted for secession, but again there was a failure. The Spanish Constitutional Court made this decision null and void.
Catalonia in 2017
The history of the separation of Catalonia from Spain continues before our eyes. On October 1 of this year, a regular referendum was held in Catalonia. Citizens stand their ground. One opinion: Catalonia is separated from Spain. But, as before, against Madrid. The Spanish authorities declared the referendum failed, canceled due to the lack of international support. The authorities of Catalonia say the opposite, as more than fifty percent of citizens voted.
Catalonia is separated from Spain, but why did the Spanish authorities do everything possible to prevent a vote? On the eve of the withdrawn ballots, blocked sites, closed most of the polling stations. And on the day of the referendum, the police were everywhere. About eight hundred people were injured in clashes with peace officers who, using noise grenades and rubber bullets, dispersed those who wanted to show their citizenship.In Madrid, opponents of the referendum took to the streets with slogans that say that Catalonia is Spain.
Why do the Catalans want independence now?
On October 1, 2017, at the next referendum, ninety percent of the voters said that Catalonia was separated from Spain. But what exactly do citizens want, defending their citizenship? Why does Catalonia want to secede from Spain right now? Here are some reasons:
- Residents take care of their own language as a memory of the historical past. They do not want the influence of Madrid in this area. Catalan is closer to Provençal than Spanish.
- Tax savings. Now tens of millions go to the Central Government, otherwise the money would remain in Catalonia itself.
- In Spain, the socio-economic crisis with which the government can not cope, and the Catalans do not like this situation.
- In the future, the Catalans will be able to improve their standard of living.
Catalonia and Spain: Will separation occur?
After such a long struggle for independence, not only the citizens of Spain, but also the world community are interested in the question: "Will Catalonia secede from Spain?"Now we are talking about the fact that this could happen as early as next Thursday, October 26, 2017. The Catalan government is rushing to get ahead of the Madrid government, which, in turn, wants to introduce interim government in the region.
The global media say that the situation is already becoming dangerous and is getting out of control of both parties. It is not known how events will develop further, especially disturbing doubts have enveloped that historical day, October 26 of the current year.
What does Spain think about the separation of Catalonia?
The Spanish Constitution does not provide for self-determination of regions. In addition, the Spaniards refer to a document that says states that the people of Spain are the bearers of sovereignty, so one region cannot decide for everyone. In fact, Spain has many trump cards in their hands. Thus, Article 155 of the Constitution of Spain permits the region to be forced to fulfill its obligations if its actions pose a threat to the interests of the country.
What does the world community think
The world community reacted loyally to the latest events in Spain. Flemish nationalists spoke at the Embassy of Spain in Brussels.They condemned the actions of the police in a referendum. The Secretary of State of Belgium pointed to the inaction of the European Commission. The Scots in Edinburgh supported the referendum. The British Foreign Office has called for the preservation of unity in the country. The head of the delegation of international observers, Dimitrij Rupel, said that the results of the referendum should be accepted by the international community, as well as by the European Union, the Council of Europe, and the Spanish authorities.
How separation will affect other countries
On the economic risks in the event of a separation of Catalonia warned the National Bank of Spain. First of all, the risks are associated with a decrease in the volume of investment by foreign individuals. In addition, the euro will not be on the sidelines, as the unity of the Eurozone is threatened.
The stock market will also be in the risk zone, as there are some firms in Catalonia that influence the calculation of the key index. The branch will adversely affect the shares owned by international companies, as their interest is in Catalonia.
Facts about Catalonia
Why does Catalonia want to secede from Spain? This decision was influenced by many reasons, and not just the desire to gain independence.Here are some interesting facts about this area, which are also prerequisites for a conflict of interest:
- about 62 billion euros Catalonia annually gives to the budget of Spain;
- twenty percent of GDP and twenty-five percent of exports is provided by Catalonia;
- Sixteen percent of Spanish residents live in Catalonia.
Anyway, today Catalonia wants to secede from Spain. The reasons for this desire for independence and freedom are clear. Will the citizens of Catalonia be able to prove their rightness and independence? We will see soon.