Who are the ulans and dragoons?
In our age of computer technology and scientific and technological progress, the army was transformed almost beyond recognition compared with the composition, for example, the victorious army of Peter I, who defeated the Swedes near Poltava.
Probably, only the infantry remained consistently in demand in all the armed forces of the world, even taking into account the realities of today. Other types of troops (cavalry, rangers, grenadiers, Cossacks, etc.), with the advent of more sophisticated means of warfare, were modified or simply reduced as superfluous.
Of course, today every boy knows that an infantryman is a soldier who fights on foot. Tankman fights with the help of his iron friend - the tank. An artilleryman is one who fires a cannon. A military sailor plows the water surface on a torpedo boat or aircraft carrier. A combat pilot is air battles on the plane. Everything is clear. At least for us.
But few of our contemporaries will be able to give an exhaustive answer to the question: "Who are the uhlans or, for example, dragoons?". This is not surprising.After all, the times of these brave soldiers have long sunk into oblivion. In everyday life, the mention of them we sometimes find in historical literature. And for some reason, the novelist writers prefer the hussars and horse guards.
In the wars of the XVII-XIX centuries, in the absence of tanks and airplanes, the Kalashnikovs and the Katyushas, the cavalry was the striking force of any army. Usually, it was under her powerful onslaught that the enemies would flee. In the midst of the battle, cavalry regiments joined the battle and decided the whole outcome of the battle.
Depending on how the cavalrymen of one or another regiment were equipped, and what they were armed with, they were called lances or dragoons, cuirassiers or hussars. In the armies of those times there were also regiments of horse rangers and grenadiers, light cones and horse carabinieri.
Let us remember with you the heroic warriors of the past centuries and clarify for yourself who these are dragoons and lancers, hussars and cuirassiers. You have probably already understood that they were cavalrymen. But what distinguished one from the other - this is what we now have to find out.
Who are the ulans
The word "Ulan" has Turkic roots, and it translates as "young man." Although the first lancers were from Poland.These riders were armed with swords and pikes. They could be distinguished from other horsemen by their high quadrangular headgear. Along with the hussars, the lancers were considered light cavalry. In Russia, the Uhlan regiments appeared in the 19th century. Previously, the shelves formed according to this type were called pikiner shelves.
Who are the dragoons
The word "dragoon" came to us from French (dragon - short musket). In addition to the cavalry armament, the dragoons also had a musket, since they were trained in combat both in cavalry and on foot. Such a universal host. For this reason, this type of cavalry was the most common in all the armies of Europe. But over time, the dragoons became less and less used as mobile infantry. They were more in demand as cavalrymen, in the heat of battle required a quick onslaught, the effect of surprise. And then the words "cavalryman" and "dragoons" became synonymous.
Who are the cuirassiers
The cuirassiers got their name from the word cuirass. Simply, they were equipped with a metal bib, protecting the rider's torso from blows with cold weapons. This bib was called the "breastplate".It was a heavy cavalry, which swept away everything in its path. But in Russia, it didn’t really catch on, because at that time there was a war with Turkey and the Crimean Khanate, and where could the heavy cuirassiers keep up with the light-legged Tatar cavalry?
Who are the hussars
But the word "hussar" has, it turns out, of Hungarian origin. The first hussar regiments appeared in France and consisted of Hungarian, Serbian, and Wallachian immigrants. The hussars were excellent riders, but they were distinguished by very poor discipline. They flaunted in uniform, sewn in the Hungarian manner. These regiments belonged to light cavalry and were used for reconnaissance purposes, as well as for the pursuit of a retreating enemy.
Now, if a volume of poems of Lermontov falls into your hands, you will know for sure who this is about in Borodino.