What was the typical medieval monastery? Famous Orthodox churches
Monuments of architecture, examples of magnificentpaintings, frescoes, records of historical chronicles - all this is a medieval monastery. Those who want to touch the past and learn about the events of bygone days should begin their journey with the study of ancient temples, as they remember much more than the pages of the annals.
Cultural and economic centers of the Middle Ages
In the Dark Times begin to gain strengthmonastic communes. For the first time they appear on the territory of Western Europe. The progenitor of this movement can be considered Benedict Nursiysky. The largest medieval monastery of this period is the monastery in Montecassino. This is a world with its own rules, in which every member of the commune had to invest his share in the development of the common cause.
At this time the medieval monastery representeda huge complex of buildings. It included cells, libraries, refectory, cathedrals and economic buildings. The latter included barns, warehouses, pens for animals.
Over time, the monasteries turned into the maincenters of concentration of culture and economy of the Middle Ages. Here they chronology of events, conducted debates, evaluated the achievements of science. Developed and perfected such teachings as philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, medicine.
All the physically hard work was providednovices, peasants and ordinary monastic workers. Such settlements were of great importance in the sphere of storage and accumulation of information. Libraries were replenished with new books, and old publications constantly corresponded. Also the monks themselves conducted historical chronicles.
The history of Russian Orthodox monasteries
Russian medieval monasteries appearedmuch later than European ones. Initially, the monks-hermits lived apart in the deserted places. But Christianity spread quickly enough among the masses, therefore stationary churches became necessary. Since the 15th century and until the reign of Peter I, there was a widespread erection of temples. They were practically in every village, and large monasteries were built in cities or in holy places.
Peter I conducted a series of church reforms thatcontinued his successors. The ordinary people negatively perceived the new fashion for the Western tradition. Therefore, under Catherine II, the construction of Orthodox monasteries is resumed.
Most of these religious buildings did not become a place of pilgrimage for believers, but some Orthodox churches are known throughout the world.
Miracles of the myrrh
The banks of the Great River and the Mirozhka River flowing into it. It is here that many centuries ago the Pskov Savior-Transfiguration Monastery of Mirozh appeared.
The location of the church made it unprotected fromfrequent raids. She took all the blows primarily on herself. Constant robbery, fires pursued the monastery for many centuries. And with all this around him, never built a fortress wall. Surprising is that, despite all the troubles, he kept the frescoes, which are still fascinating with their beauty.
For many centuries the Mirozhsky monastery preserved in itself an invaluable miraculous icon of the Mother of God. In the XVI century, it became famous for the miracle of mirotocheniya. Later, miracles of healing were laid on her.
In the collection, which was kept in the library of the monastery,a record was found. It is dated 1595 according to the modern calendar. It contained a story of the miraculous miraculation of the icon. As the record says: "Tears flow from the eyes of the Most Pure, like streams."
Several years ago the monastery of Djurdjevi Stupovi celebrated his birthday. And he was born neither more nor less, but eight centuries ago. This church became one of the first Orthodox in Montenegrin land.
The monastery survived many tragic days. For its many centuries of history, it was destroyed by fire 5 times. In the end, the monks left this place.
For a long period the medieval monasterywas in desolation. And only at the end of the 19th century did the project for the reconstruction of this historical object begin. Restored not only architectural structures, but also monastic life.
On the territory of the monastery there is a museum. In it you can see fragments of surviving buildings and artifacts. Now the monastery of Djurdjevi Stupovi lives a real life. Permanent charitable actions and collections for the development of this monument of spirituality are held.
The past in the present
Today, Orthodox monasteries continue their active work. Despite the fact that the history of some has exceeded one thousand years, they continue to live in the old way and do not seek to change anything.
The main occupations are the management of arable farming andservice to the Lord. Monks try to comprehend the world according to the Bible and teach it to others. In their experience, they show that money and power are passing. Even without them you can live and be absolutely happy at the same time.
Unlike churches, monasteries do not have a parish,Nevertheless, people willingly attend monks. By giving up everything in the world, many of them receive a gift - the ability to treat illnesses or help with words.