What type of fetus does the potato have? Fruits of Solanaceous
Class dicot flowers most numerousin nature and is represented by a number of families. One of them is the family of Solanaceae, whose representatives are of great economic importance to man.
General characteristics of the Solanaceae family
Before you in the photo - potatoes. This famous plant is a typical representative of Solanaceae. But this systematic unit received its name thanks to its other representative - nightshade black. Most of these plants have long been cultivated, they are grown by man.
The main distinguishing feature of each family -the structure of the flower. In Solanaceae it is represented by five stamens and a pestle, which consists of several carpels. Petals are also 5, they are fused together. The same number and structure have sepals. The set of petals (corolla) can be painted in different colors. In datura it is white, in belladonna it is lilac, in tobacco it is pink. Ovary - an enlarged part of the pistil - is upper or loose. This means that it does not fuse with any parts of the flower, and the base is attached to the flower-tree.
Nightshade: vegetables and more ...
Tomato, eggplant, potatoes - Solanaceae, whichgive tasty and healthy vegetables. They have valuable nutritional properties. But apart from them, widespread use of medicinal nightshade. For example, belladonna contains alkaloids. They have an antispasmodic effect, reducing the muscle tone of the organs. Belen, traditionally considered a poisonous plant, in folk medicine is used in the form of alcohol tincture for the treatment of boils, inflammation and colds.
Sweet tobacco, dope and petunia - decorativerepresentatives of Solanaceae. They are used to design homestead territories. And physalis, or a Chinese lantern, will perfectly adorn any autumn landscape or ikebana.
The valuable technical cultures are tobacco and tobacco, which go to the production of cigarettes.
Types of fruits
The fruits of Solanaceous are represented by a box and a berry. The first type is dry, multi-seeded and unfolding. This helps the plant to spread more efficiently in nature. There are capsules in dope and whitened. Vegetable crops form a juicy multi-seeded berry.
Her pericarp consists of three layers. Outer, leathery, is protective, and the middle and inner - juicy and fleshy, they store the necessary substances. The type of fruit in potatoes, peppers and tomato is exactly this.
History of potatoes
For a long time people were engaged in gathering. Together with the edible roots of many plants, potato tubers were also found. It happened in Latin America about 5 thousand years ago. In Europe, it was first tried by the Spaniards only in the 16th century. In our country, the first bag of potatoes was imported from Holland. However, a century had to pass before this product took its rightful place.
This is now for questions: "Name the type of fruit in the potato" and "What parts of this plant are eaten?" - Everyone will answer. And in those days, shoots, fruits or unripe potato tubers were prepared. Due to the presence of a dangerous substance in the alkaloid, numerous food poisoning occurred. People just hated this plant. The people even arranged real "potato riots", refusing to cultivate culture. But they still found a decent application. Of the beautiful lilac flowers, elegant butonniere was made, which was decorated with the orders of cavaliers, hats and hairstyles of ladies.
And now we look at the photo with appetite: the potato rightfully took a worthy place on every table.
People in general often made mistakes in the field ofuse of plants. For example, belladonna ("beautiful woman") got its name back in ancient Rome. Beauties of that time buried a poisonous juice in the eyes. In this case, the pupils greatly expanded. It was believed that this makes the female look irresistible. Much later it turned out that this procedure significantly reduces vision.
Type of fetus in potatoes
This plant is a typical representativefamily Solanaceae, the signs of which have thoroughly studied biology. Potatoes are now used so much and cultivated that the townsfolk do not think about which organs include its edible parts.
If you hold a sociological survey and ask: "Name the type of fruit in the potato", the majority will answer: "Of course, the tuber." And they will be wrong. Type of fruit in potatoes is berry. Outwardly it looks like a small tomato. At first it is green, and as it matures it gradually turns black.
Tubers or berries
Traditionally, it is assumed that potatoes multiplyvegetatively, with the help of underground modifications of the shoot. This is a proven method that yields decent yields. However, this is not economically profitable. After all, a rather large proportion of the grown produce should be left on the planting material. The type of fruit in potatoes is a berry, it is multi-seeded. Therefore, to avoid shortcomings, it would be possible to use seed reproduction. Why is this method with all the advantages not widely used?
The thing is that modern varieties of potatoespractically do not give seeds. Recently, breeders are actively working on the breeding of new species with a large number of seeds, which will significantly increase the efficiency of growing all the beloved potatoes.
All known solanaceous
There is such a thing as "nightshade food". First of all it is sweet Bulgarian pepper, tomatoes, eggplant. Their valuable gastronomic qualities are due to the taste of fruit pulp.
All of them contain special substances - alkaloids. The most famous of them is nicotine. First place in its content is, of course, tobacco. Surprisingly, the second place ... eggplant. And the third place was given to green tomatoes. However, the content of nicotine in them is so small that one can not fear for one's health.
The type of fruit in potatoes and its taste qualities are notallow you to eat it. What can not be said about the tubers - pantry starch. It should be noted that the content of dangerous alkaloids in sprouted and green potatoes increases significantly and can cause poisoning of the human body. The appearance of green color is the result of the transformation of colorless plastids of leucoplasts into green - chloroplasts. After all, the tuber is a modification of the escape. This reaction occurs exclusively in the light, so it is better to store valuable reserves in dark cool rooms.
From the fruits of bitter red pepper get different spices, which are used for cooking seasonings and sauces. This product is also solanaceous.
In addition to eating people widelyuses the medicinal properties of solanaceous plants. From the leaves of the jellyfish, an extract is obtained for the treatment of bronchial asthma, and from belladonna is an analgesic. However, it is not recommended to use medicinal preparations from these plants independently, it is better to consult a doctor about the dosage. The fact is that alkaloids are poisonous substances. Their excessive amount leads to a rapid pulse, shortness of breath, and pain in the digestive system.
At present, representatives of the Solanaceae family have occupied all niches of use due to the presence of valuable properties: from gastronomic to medicinal.