What is sociology?

Lilya Mayak
Lilya Mayak
January 28, 2015
What is sociology?

Sociology is called the science of society, the laws of its development and functioning, systems and social institutions. To date, the concept has expanded and contains many individual teachings.

In this article we will explain in detail what sociology means and what sociologists are doing.

Sociology: definition

Literally translated from Greek, sociology means “the science of society”. It studies the internal mechanisms of the functioning of society, as well as its individual structures, which may include specific social structures, organizations, institutions and groups.

Sociology studies the features of social behavior of people, as well as the relationship of the individual with society. You can read more about what is the subject of study of this science in our article What is studying sociology.

Types of sociology

There are three main types of sociology:

  1. theoretical;
  2. empirical;
  3. applied.

Theoretical sociology relies on the scientific study of society to mastertheoretical knowledge. However, without empirical sociology, this species does not have sufficient grounds. Empirical sociology is engaged in research that is based on the processing and analysis of sociological information. This species is also called sociography, with an emphasis on the descriptive nature of this branch of science. The latter type is applied sociology, more than others it is based on practice. He uses already received sociological information to solve serious social problems and issues.

What kind of profession is a sociologist?

Sociologists by the nature of their work divide science into macro- and microsociology. Thus, the first kind, as the name implies, studies the social processes of the whole society as a whole, while the subject of microsociology is small social systems and interrelations of individuals.

In addition, a sociologist may be engaged in a specific level of sociology - upper, middle, or lower. In the upper level, its activity concerns general sociological knowledge, on average, special and sectoral theories, and in the lower level, certain sociological research.

It is important to note that the average level, in turn, is divided into separate branches. Thus, a sociologist can cover the sphere of politics, culture, economics, law, etc. Specific groups of society — family, youth, and elderly people — can also be the subject of his research. Sometimes sociologists rely on the study of individuals and their relationships with society.

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