What does psychology study?
Psychology as a scientific discipline has its own subject and object, tasks and methods. Let us take a closer look at what psychology is studying.
Subject and object of psychology
We will immediately determine that the subject of study of a particular science is a wider term than an object that is a part of the subject.
Subject of psychology
It is important to note that the views on the subject of this science have changed over time. Initially, the basis of psychology was the study of the soul as the focus of the whole emotional, unconscious in man. Much later, approximately from the 17th century, when the term “soul” left the scientific terminology, psychology began to be called the science that explores consciousness. Starting from the 20th century, views changed again, now the behavioral factor has become the subject of psychology.
A little later (and up to today), the psyche was defined as the subject of psychology as the subjective inner world of a person in all its versatility.
The main object of this science is in itself the subject in the context of its behavior, social activity, relationships of various nature (labor, personal, social).
Moreover, depending on the particular aspect of the human psyche, various branches of this science are distinguished.
Branches of psychology
- Genetic psychology. Conducts an analysis of the hereditary factor in the formation of the human psyche, the foundations of his behavior.
- Social Psychology. Here the object of research is the socio-psychological manifestations of the individual in the context of large and small social groups, the psychological compatibility of people, and so on.
- Child psychology. It studies the formation and development of the child’s psyche, analyzes the possibilities of accelerating, correcting mental development.
- Differential psychology. The object of the study are individual psychological differences of personalities.
- Pedagogical psychology. It focuses on the development of personality in the process of educational and educational activities.
- Labor psychology. Studying the nuances of the formation of labor skills, aspects of the impact of labor on the human psyche and psyche on the propensity for a particular profession.
- Clinical psychology. He studies the abnormalities of various etymologies in the human psyche, including pathopsychology, which focuses on the dysfunction of the psyche due to diseases of the brain.
- Military psychology.Analyzes the features of the formation, changes, manifestations of mental reactions in combat conditions.
- Ethnic psychology. Examines psychological development in the context of national-cultural differences.
In addition to these industries, there are various other areas of psychological research. In particular, highly specialized branches engaged in the study of the psyche of the individual, manifested in certain conditions of activity. For example, there is a legal psychology that deals with the behavior of participants in a criminal process (the psychology of interrogation and testimony, the psychology of crime).
Tasks and methods of psychology
Tasks of psychology
In their work, psychologists aim to study:
- Mental phenomena - the driving mechanisms, patterns, characteristics of manifestation;
- The nature of the formation of mental personality characteristics in the dynamics of age, socio-cultural and other changes;
- Methods that allow you to control mental processes (their origin and development, direction, intensity, character, etc.);
- Methods of effective application of knowledge obtained in the course of research in other areas of scientific thought, in practical life.
- Biographical method (the study of personality in the context of history).
- Psychological modeling (the creation of situations close to real, for the study of mental reactions that are activated under certain conditions).
- Natural and laboratory experiment.
- Comparative method (the study and comparison of the various phases of formation, development and destruction of mental reactions).
- Testing and questioning.
- The study of the products of activity (analysis of documents, archival materials, diaries, the results of labor, social, educational, creative activity of a person without an analysis of his current, ie, momentary behavior).