Waterproofing of building structures. Waterproofing materials
Waterproofing of building structures is a guarantee of their reliable operation throughout the entire life cycle of a building or structure. Protection arrange on all elements exposed to moisture.
Types of impacts
The effect of water can be different, because the insulation must perform certain functions to prevent specific undesirable consequences:
1) Anti-filtration waterproofing is to protect structures that are directly exposed to water: underground and hydraulic structures, underwater elements, tunnels, wells, etc.
2) Anticorrosion waterproofing is designed to prevent the harmful effects of an aggressive moist environment, chemicals that can disrupt the structure of materials and structures of them.
Most construction projects are made of reinforced concrete.Concrete itself is not afraid of water - its strength from its impact only grows. However, chemical impurities that are part of a liquid are capable of leaching calcium and other substances from the stone that affect its technical characteristics. In addition, when exposed to water for a long time, it is able to penetrate deep into the body of the structure and damage the reinforcement cage - this is a real threat to the entire element, as the metal oxidizes and rust, losing its bearing capacity. That is why the waterproofing of building structures is necessary for all structural elements without exception.
What is protection?
Depending on the installation method of waterproofing, the materials for it are amenable to the following classification:
- Roll - the most common and versatile. Mounted by sticking to the work surface in several layers.
- Impregnating (coating) of organic binders (bitumen, polymer lacquer and the like) is suitable for insulation of porous products and prefabricated structures subjected to intense mechanical stress. It can be applied both with brushes and sprayers.
- Filling is a hydrophobic bulk materials (asphalt-insol, hydrophobic sand or powder), filled with waterproof cavities (formwork). It is used to protect the basement and basement, as well as floors in wet areas.
- Penetrating waterproofing is a chemical additive incorporated into concrete. Principle of action: when in contact with water, the active substances are converted into complex compounds of salts, which prevent the further spread of moisture.
- Injection protects the seams of structures or areas that require repair.
- Cast waterproofing - liquid molten compound applied to the surface in several layers. Since this species is very expensive, they apply it in especially responsible cases.
- Plastering concrete surfaces with waterproof compounds.
- Mounted insulation is sheets of plastic, metal, tile, film. Billets are attached with mounting devices or glue to the working surface.
The most common are obmazochnaya and roll waterproofing. They are easy to use, affordable and versatile.
We protect the house
During the construction of residential and public buildings use almost all types of waterproof materials. The expediency of their application is calculated at the design stage, when they take into account all possible negative impacts. Waterproofing the house from the foundation to the roof is required to ensure the normal functioning of all elements and safety, respectively. In addition, it is necessary when laying insulation: it can perform its functions only in the dry state.
For each individual design, special waterproofing is applied, materials for its implementation and the method of their application.
The base is the most responsible construction of the house In most cases, in private construction, the foundation combines the function of a common support and a basement. Not only the quality of work of all the structures, but also the health of the person living in the house, the sanitary situation in the rooms depends on his condition.
As a material for the foundation of the device most often used concrete with reinforcement. It is important to protect it from the following damaging effects:
- Waterproofing from groundwater outside.This is especially important if their level is above the basement level, then the protection should be anti-pressure. To do this, use roll materials in conjunction with the trebled drainage system.
- Waterproofing the basement and the walls of the foundation from the inside to prevent the formation of condensate, penetration of groundwater during their capillary rise.
How to protect the strip foundation
The inner and outer walls of the base perceive different water impacts, therefore the types of insulation for them use different.
The outer surface of the base in contact with the soil and water should be as reliable as possible. For waterproofing devices use:
- Roll materials. Roofing material is used more often, but it can be replaced with other, more complex polymer insulators. They are similar in properties, but the latter are more durable, this is true with a high level of groundwater and soil mobility. Rolled waterproofing is applied on a flat, previously cleaned of dust by gluing on the bitumen mastic in several layers.
- Polymer coating materials are suitable for protecting the foundation from insignificant capillary raising of the groundwater level.For significant impacts, coating is not suitable - it is easily deformed even at the stage of returning the ground during construction and requires repair, which is difficult to produce in this area. Most often it is used to protect shallow foundations with a minimum level of groundwater.
- Sprayed waterproofing requires special surface preparation and complex application, because it is often used at the joints of the foundations of several buildings where traditional materials are difficult to attach. Also in hard-to-reach areas her device is irreplaceable.
Waterproofing of these types of bases is carried out by appropriate processing of working structures. For piles and pillars, concrete with a high water resistance class is used, wooden elements need to be impregnated with special compositions, the strip foundation is protected by a grillage with roll or coating materials and with a blind area that minimizes the ingress of water from the environment.
The foundation is affected not only by groundwater, but also by precipitation in the form of rain, melting snow.To prevent their negative impact, you need a blind area device. It is installed around the perimeter of the house after the installation of the foundation of which it is part.
The blind area must be at least 20 cm higher than the eaves, and have a slope of less than 20to drain water.
The perimeter device is produced according to the following algorithm:
1) Remove about 250 mm of soil and compact the surface.
2) Lay the pillow from a gravel-sand mixture ≥150 mm thick.
3) Installation of formwork on the outer perimeter.
4) Installation of frame mesh of reinforcement 6-12 mm with a pitch of 100 mm. Of course, it may not be, but with it the future design will be able to withstand heavy loads, which will reduce the risk of its failure.
5) Pouring the concrete mix and leveling.
It is important to create compensatory gaps that will protect the monolithic structure from deformations that may occur when the house settles and the ground moves. To do this, in the formwork lay boards perpendicular to the house at a height of blind area at a distance of 1.5-2.0 meters, and a layer of roofing material ≥ 10 mm thick is arranged around the perimeter of the wall itself.
Waterproofing of building structures should be carried out comprehensively to be effective.
The room located at the foundation level must be dry and airtight. Basement waterproofing includes the treatment of both walls and floors with waterproof structures and materials.
Floorssealed on a concrete base. It is well cleaned of dirt and dust, roll materials rolled from above. The number of coating layers depends on the groundwater level: if it is below the floor level, it is enough to lay the roofing material or another polymer 2-3 times on top of each other, smearing each level with liquid mastic. With increased GWL layers should be more.
Wallsthe basement is erected according to special technologies with the use of clay locks embedded in the masonry. The room itself should be treated with anti-capillary compositions. Obmazochnaya waterproofing is excellent for these purposes: it follows contours and surface irregularities. With an increased GWL, roll insulators can be used. The walls are also treated with plaster compositions of concrete and cement with a high rate of water resistance. In this case, in addition to waterproofing, warming and finishing of the room are performed simultaneously.
Integrated waterproofing of building structures - a pledge of durability of the building. It is especially important to protect responsible and large elements: the integrity of the whole house depends on the reliability of their work. A larger volume of any structure make up the walls. That is why their device is paid special attention.
The outer surface is in active contact with water: rain, melting snow are able to penetrate inside wall materials, with their prolonged exposure the humidity in the room increases, fungi and mold develop. Waterproofing of the walls from the inside of them can be done in the following ways:
- Treatment with penetrating primers and formulations.
- Pasting of a surface with membranes.
- Plastering solutions containing moisture-proof additives.
Waterproofing of internal walls in one way or another depends on their design and the type of further finishing. All options are effective and able to withstand high humidity coming from outside.
Careful study requires all the joints of the walls and floors, mating of dissimilar materials, expansion joints of structures.
Waterproofing of walls is necessary in rooms with high humidity: bathrooms, bathrooms, saunas, production halls.To ensure it, apply finishing components that are resistant to moisture: primer, plaster, tile.
For exterior walls of materials that are not resistant to moisture, plaster, tiling and stone are used. Previously it will not be superfluous to treat the surface with a waterproof primer or coating insulation.
Roof waterproofing is designed to protect the interior and structures from moisture leakage from external precipitation.
Roof structures have a complex multi-layer structure, in which significant temperature differences are formed, which causes condensation on the inner surface of the coating. To prevent this from happening, it is important to correctly design the “layering” of the roof. It is necessary to provide ventilation and moisture removal. Waterproofing material contributes to the formation of breathable contours with a joint device with a coating and insulation in a special order determined by the design of a particular solution.
Roof waterproofing can be made of the following materials:
- Plain plastic film.
- Polypropylene film.
- Non-woven membrane.
The choice of a particular material depends on its properties and their relevance in the design. For example, some insulators allow evaporation, but retain water. Others work differently from two sides (one passes moisture / water, the other does not). For some samples, an air gap is required in the layering.
Waterproofing a pool always implies protection from two sides - inside and out. Its structure is similar to the protection of the foundation: the outer part is subject to aggressive groundwater and the movement of the ground, therefore, for protection, they are taped with rolled materials, for example, several layers of roofing felt. To create a bowl, it is advisable to use concrete with special additives that make the stone resistant to water.
Internal waterproofing of the pool is made before finishing. What does it do:
- Membrane materials. They do an excellent job with their work, but installation requires the participation of specialists.
- Liquid rubber.
- Coating compositions in the form of a paste, after hardening, turning into a waterproof material.
- Liquid glass.
These types of treatment are ideal for the pool: they withstand high water pressure, they do not deform and do not change their properties with prolonged exposure to moisture.
Why do waterproofing the pool, if it is surrounded on all sides by water?
The bowl is made of reinforced concrete, which is able to actively absorb moisture. If the stone from this only gains strength, then the fittings in its body begin to rust, losing their bearing capacity. Thus, the walls of the pool with time can weaken and collapse.