Types of building blocks: overview, characteristics, pros and cons, reviews
Different blocks can act as an excellent alternative to other materials, including traditional brick. These products are suitable for the construction of buildings for any purpose. They have impressive size (more than a brick). This suggests that it is possible to complete the construction work as soon as possible. Blocks are presented for sale in different forms. In order to choose a material, it is necessary to compare several types of products, taking into account their cost, purpose and quality.
The main types of blocks. Categorization by category
Today, two categories of blocks can be found on sale, one of them is represented by artificial, while the other - by natural materials. Production of building blocks in a factory setting involves mixing dry components and adding water in the right proportion.In order for the product to gain the required size, the mixture is poured into molds.
As for natural blocks, they are made by polishing natural rocks. They are used for decoration. If you want construction to be low cost, you should use artificial material. Considering the types of building blocks, you should pay attention to products from different materials in the base, among them should be highlighted:
- polystyrene concrete;
- foam concrete;
- gas silicate.
Overview of blocks of different materials: concrete products
Concrete products are manufactured according to state standards 13579-78. After reading this document, you can understand that such structures are cut-outs, solid and hollow. Each species has its own label.
As for the solid concrete blocks, they are also called foundation blocks and are designated by the acronym FBS. When purchasing products with cutouts, you should pay attention to the labeling of the FBV. But the hollow blocks are denoted by three letters FBP.
For the construction of walls used solid blocks, they are called - wall.These structures found themselves in the construction of foundations and basement walls. The blocks are highly resistant to stress, but have low thermal insulation properties. Their laying is carried out on a sandy pillow or soil.
The GOST registers strictly regulated dimensions, among them should be allocated a width ranging from 30 to 60 cm, length - from 88 to 238 cm, as well as a height that can be equal to 28 and 58 cm. 118 cm act as an intermediate value. But the width varies in increments of 10 cm.
Considering the concrete type of building blocks, you should pay attention to solid products with cutouts. They are used for laying communications. Structures may have slots for laying jumpers. Thus, blocks of FBV are products with height and length that are equal to 58 and 88 cm, respectively. But the width is equal to the limit that was mentioned above. Hollow blocks have open holes pointing down. The length and height of such products are 238 and 58 cm, respectively. Width varies from 40 to 60 cm.
Overview and characteristics of expanded clay blocks
Among the numerous types of building blocks on sale you can find keramsit concrete products, which are made according to GOST 6133-99.According to the standard, keramzit concrete stones are products from fine-grained, light and heavy concrete. They are made in the form of corpulent products. The thickness of the outer walls should be 2 cm or more.
Stamps claydite blocks as follows:
As for the weight of the block, it should not exceed 31 kg. Such structures are used for laying partitions and walls. They are private and facial. The latter have one side or two front surfaces. Depending on what place in the laying will be occupied by the block, it can be connective, angular or sequential.
This building block, whose dimensions will be mentioned below, has a density ranging from 400 to 1800 kg per m3. The height can be equal to 19 and 24 cm. As for the length, there are blocks of 12 and 45 cm. But in width they are more diverse. The minimum value is 7 cm, while the maximum is 49.5 cm. If you are interested in claydite-concrete building blocks, you should also know their price. For example, 8-slot products can be purchased for 40 rubles.
Reviews polystyrene concrete blocks
Polystyrene products are obtained by mixing water, cement, as well as polystyrene beads and additives.According to users, these products have a very wide scope. This is true, because the blocks proved to be excellent at:
- construction of enclosing structures;
- erection of bearing walls;
As for the enclosing structures, in this case we are talking about frame buildings. Consumers like that these products have high thermal insulation characteristics, and their density reaches 600 kg per m3. The described building block, the dimensions of which can be different, is classified into wall, thermal insulation and interior. The latter have dimensions ranging from 60x30x8 to 60x30x12 cm. As for wall products, their dimensions are 60x30x20 cm and 60x30x25 cm. If you need heat insulating plates, their dimensions will be 60x30x9 cm or 60x30x20 cm. However, there are also intermediate sizes.
The advantages of cinder blocks
Slag stone can correspond to the strength of brands within M35 – M125. They have a wide range of uses. Apply products for the construction of sheds, garages, cottages and in the arrangement of ventilation systems. At the same time objects can be industrial or residential.In addition, cinder blocks go on paving sidewalks.
They have high refractory qualities, durability and low cost. For certain conditions, the technology may include the use of additives. Slag blocks, the pros and cons of which must be considered before purchasing a product, refer to materials that are distinguished by ease of installation.
Cons of cinder blocks
Whatever the quality of the material, it has its drawbacks, among which in the case of cinder blocks should be highlighted:
- low quality sound insulation;
- environmental safety.
Hygroscopicity is expressed in the fact that slag stones, the pros and cons of which are reflected in the article, cannot be used in those places that are prone to flooding and flooding. Erected walls will need to be covered with plaster on both sides.
Due to the high strength it is very inconvenient to lay communications in the walls. Houses made of cinder blocks are obtained with low thermal insulation and sound insulation qualities.
It is impossible not to draw attention to the fact that cinder blocks can be an environmental hazard, because slag is a by-product of burning coal, which contains sulfur and acid.For the weathering of toxins, it is necessary to sustain the blocks in the open air for a year.
Gas-silicate partitioning products and their advantages
Gas silicate baffle blocks have many advantages. Among them should be highlighted:
- small weight;
- excellent strength performance;
- excellent thermal insulation properties;
- ability to accumulate heat;
- ability to undergo exposure to flame.
These products are almost 5 times lighter than conventional concrete, which saves on installation and transportation. Low weight reduces labor intensity. These building blocks, the price of which starts from 3200 rubles. per cubic meter, have high strength. This allows the use of products for laying walls that are bearing in low-rise construction.
You can also use blocks as a placeholder in frame buildings. They have sound insulation 10 times higher than brick. This is due to the porous structure. The walls created from this material breathe. This allows you to create an excellent microclimate in the premises. The process of laying is facilitated, because in the size of the deviations are minimal.This also reduces construction time.
Cons of gas silicate blocks
Before purchasing a gas silicate block, it is necessary to consider its disadvantages. Disadvantages are:
- low frost resistance and strength;
- high hygroscopicity;
In order to avoid shrinkage, it is necessary to lay metal rods or a reinforced mesh every four rows. Walls of gas silicate blocks can crumble under mechanical stress. It is quite difficult to hang something from the furniture elements on them, because plastic dowels will crush gas silicate. Use for this you need special dowels for such blocks that do not contribute to the destruction of the walls.
Sand Block Overview
Sand block is represented today in a variety of options. Among others it is necessary to allocate corpulent and base products. They have no voids, which contributes to increased strength. Such designs for the bases and the bases are used. Usually their size is 400 x 200 x 200 mm. But the sand-concrete hollow block may have holes - from 2 to 8 pieces.
Why else should I choose a sand concrete block?
They have excellent sound and heat insulation qualities. Durability at the proper level, but the consumption of raw materials decreases. The main area of use is the construction of load-bearing walls. On sale are also facing, as well as partition and wall blocks. The first have a decorative surface, while the partition walls are designed for the construction of openings and partitions.
Before you make a choice in the direction of a block for building a house, you need to decide on the conditions under which it will be used. In addition, you need to decide whether you plan to do the facing of the house. After all, some blocks are hygroscopic.