What caused the appearance of most of the waves in the oceans and seas, about the destructive energy of the waves and the most gigantic waves, and the largest tsunami that man has ever seen.
Most often, the waves are generated by the wind: the air moves the surface layers of the water column at a certain speed. Some waves can accelerate to 95 km / h, while the wave can be up to 300 meters long, such waves travel enormous distances over the ocean, but most often their kinetic energy is extinguished, consumed even before they reach land. If the wind subsides, then the waves become smaller, smoother.
The formation of waves in the ocean is subject to certain laws.
Wave speed can reach 100 km / h
The height and wavelength depends on the wind speed, on the duration of its impact, on the area covered by the wind. There is a correspondence: the highest wave height is one seventh of its length. For example, a strong breeze generates waves up to 3 meters high, an extensive hurricane up to 20 meters on average.And these are truly monstrous waves, with roaring foam caps and other special effects.
Ocean waves can be of different heights.
The highest ordinary wave of 34 meters was recorded on the Agulhas current (South Africa) in 1933 by sailors from the American Ramapo. Waves of this height are called “killer waves”: in the dips between them, even a large ship can easily get lost and die.
In theory, the height of normal waves can reach 60 meters, but those have not yet been fixed in practice.
Giant killer waves
Besides the usual wind origin, there are other wave formation mechanisms. The cause and epicenter of the birth of a wave can be an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, a sharp change in the coastline (landslides), human activity (for example, testing of nuclear weapons) and even falling into the ocean of large celestial bodies - meteorites.
The biggest wave
This tsunami is a serial wave, which is caused by a powerful impulse. The peculiarity of tsunami waves is that they are quite long, the distance between the crests can reach tens of kilometers.Therefore, in the open ocean tsunami does not represent a particular danger, since the height of the waves is on average no more than a few centimeters, in record cases - a meter and a half, but the speed of their propagation is simply unthinkable, up to 800 km / h. From the ship in the open sea, they are generally not noticeable. The tsunami acquires the destructive force, approaching the coast: reflection from the coast leads to compression of the wavelength, and the energy does not go anywhere. Accordingly, its (wave) amplitude increases, that is, the height. It is easy to conclude that such waves can reach a much greater height than wind waves.
The consequences of a giant wave - tsunami
The worst tsunamis occur due to significant violations of the seabed, for example, tectonic faults or shifts, due to which billions of tons of water begin to move sharply tens of thousands of kilometers with the speed of a jet plane. Disasters occur when all this mass slows down on the coast, and its colossal energy first goes to building up the altitude, and as a result it hits the land with all its might, the water wall.
Large tsunamis are especially dangerous on the coast
The most “dangerous” places are bays with high banks. These are real tsunami traps. And the worst thing is that a tsunami almost always comes suddenly: the sea situation may be indistinguishable from low tide or high tide, a normal storm, people do not have time or even do not think to evacuate, and suddenly a giant wave catches them. The warning system is not much developed.
Thailand’s tsunami disaster in 2004
Territories with high seismic activity are areas of particular risk in our time. No wonder the name of this natural phenomenon is of Japanese origin.
The worst tsunami in Japan
Islands are regularly attacked by waves of different caliber, and among them there are truly gigantic, entailing human sacrifices. An earthquake off the east coast of Honshu Island in 2011 caused a tsunami with a wave height of up to 40 meters. The earthquake is estimated as the strongest in the described history of Japan. The waves struck across the coast, together with an earthquake, they killed more than 15 thousand people, many thousands were missing.
Tsunami on the coast of Japan
Another highest wave in the history of Japan collapsed in 1741 to the west of Hokkaido Island as a result of a volcanic eruption, its height is approximately estimated at 90 meters.
The biggest tsunami in the world
In 2004, the tsunami on the islands of Sumatra and Java, caused by a strong earthquake in the Indian Ocean, turned into a major catastrophe. According to various sources, from 200 to 300 thousand people died - a third of a million victims! To date, this is precisely the tsunami considered the most destructive in history.
Thailand's tsunami - the biggest wave in the world - has become a natural disaster
And the record for wave height is the name "Lita". This tsunami, swept in 1958 on the Gulf of Lituya in Alaska at a speed of 160 km / h, was triggered by a giant landslide. The height of the wave was estimated at 524 meters.
Meanwhile, the sea is not always dangerous. There are “friendly” seas. For example, no river flows into the Red Sea, but it is the cleanest in the world. On the website uznayvse.ru you can read about it.
The biggest tsunami in the world image, picture, imagery