The best picture of Venetsianov. Biography and work of Alexey Gavrilovich Venetsianov
Alexey Gavrilovich Venetsianov - famous Russian artist of the XIX century. His innovative work had a huge impact on the national painting of the century. He is credited with the development of a new genre of domestic scenes that has not yet been fully developed in Russian art. It was he who first turned to the image of simple peasants, their work and life. In addition, the artist founded his own school, many of whose representatives developed the traditions laid down by him.
Alexey Gavrilovich Venetsianov was born in Moscow in 1780 into a merchant family. His father was recorded in Greek church books. Relatives of the future famous artist were from Greece. Parents of the boy were engaged in trade in fruit and berry bushes.However, the record was preserved that they resold the paintings, which undoubtedly influenced the child, who already during his studies in a private Moscow boarding house found a craving for painting.
At first, the father did not approve of his hobbies, however, seeing his son’s perseverance in learning to draw, he finally accepted it. The biography of Alexey Gavrilovich Venetsianov was now associated with painting, although he served as an official in his youth. There is information that already at a young age he was taught painting by a certain master Pakhomych, so that by the time he moved to Petersburg Alexey had the necessary skills of an artist.
In the capital, Alex tried to start earning with the help of his art. However, his first attempts to declare himself in society as an artist were not crowned with success. Then he entered the service as an official for a while. However, Alexey Gavrilovich continued taking painting lessons from the famous artist V. Borovikovsky, independently copying paintings at the Hermitage.
The first painting by Venetsianov was painted in 1801. It was a portrait of his mother, in which the basic principles of his painting manner were laid: softness and lightness of colors, lyricism of the image, simplicity and naturalness of poses, facial expressions.
The artist began exactly as a portrait painter. He actively painted portraits of his relatives, friends, relatives, and in this field he was recognized. Venetsianov's painting “Portrait of K.I. Golovachevsky with pupils "brought him popularity. In 1811 he received the title of academician, which gave him the opportunity to devote himself entirely to his beloved work.
Portraits of the painter
Despite the success of this canvas, it is nevertheless somewhat inferior to other works of the artist, made in a more natural, simple manner, while the image of Golovachevsky is characterized by some didacticism, which, however, was explained by the status of the latter. The artist's self-portrait turned out to be softer, more soulful and heartfelt. In it, the Venetians allowed themselves to write in a very free manner, without restricting themselves to academic rules.
Among the portraits of the artist should separately mention the image of his wife, imbued with the subtle lyrical spirit, which later will become the main distinguishing feature of his works.
In the decade indicated, important changes occurred in the life and work of Venetsianov.In 1819 he left the service, bought the estate in the Tver province, where he began to develop a new genre of the peasant theme.
The first painting by Venetsianov, dedicated to simple everyday scenes, is called "Reaper". The canvas was created in the mid-1820s. It is noteworthy in that it opened a new stage in the work of the author, who now took it upon himself to reproduce with maximum accuracy the pictures of rural working days and Russian nature. A young girl in a festive peasant outfit is painted on canvas. She has a sickle in her hands that indicates her occupation.
The image is depicted by the artist with a special solemnity: the pose and expression of the girl’s face breathe calm and tranquility. Thus, a new stage in the career of the artist opened the painting "Reaper". Venetsianov has since begun to actively develop the theme of genre peasant scenes in painting.
“On arable land. Spring"
This work is considered, perhaps, the most famous and the best in the works of the master. At least, his name is associated with this canvas, written in the first half of the 1820s.
The peculiarity of this work is that it is realistic and allegorical at the same time.The fact is that many critics point to the apparent disproportion of the central figure of a woman in relation to horses, which she leads with unusual ease, which is not entirely plausible.
At the same time, Venetsianov’s picture amazingly accurately reproduces the beauty of Russian nature, which no one had depicted before him. At the time in question, artists preferred to paint Italian landscapes; if they wanted to depict Russian spaces, they were limited to conditional sketches in the background. The author also truthfully and with great love showed the Russian field and those who work in it. Despite these disproportions of the peasant figure, Alexey Gavrilovich Venetsianov painted his model with great warmth and love. “On arable land. Spring ”is a canvas that glorifies simple rural work and the beauty of the rural landscape.
“On the harvest. Summer"
This picture is a kind of continuation of the above canvas. On it, the author showed a peasant woman on vacation while collecting hay. The composition is flooded with bright light that conveys the calm, peaceful spirit that this picture breathes. The artist again showed the flavor of Russian nature.
The main part of the canvas is occupied by the boundless field of the harvest, flooded with bright sunlight. The remaining half of the canvas is a clear sky with light clouds.
Against this background, the figure of a peasant woman in a picturesque costume stands out particularly well: a red skirt, a white jacket perfectly harmonizes with the surrounding landscape.
This picture shows a peasant woman no longer at work, but on rest. In the center of the canvas (which was also written in the mid-1820s) is the figure of a woman leaning against a large haystack. She feeds a small child and looks at the girl, who, in turn, is watching her. This time the author portrayed the peasant worker not as a carefree worker, but as a tired woman who, in addition to collecting hay, has to take care of her infant child at the same time. Therefore, her face looks tired.
As no one else was able to convey the simple feelings of simple village workers Venetian. “Haymaking” is a picture that shows the viewer a typical scene of village life.
This work is also considered one of the best works of the artist. It differs from the above-named paintings in that the collective work of a group of peasants is now in the center of attention of the author.
Venetsianov attached great importance to the realistic depiction of the observed phenomena, therefore, on the canvas, the labor process was transmitted almost with photographic accuracy. In the middle of the picture is the working room of the peasants, who for some time interrupted the processing of grain.
The picture is flooded with light that falls on the stage from both sides. The poses and faces of the peasants breathe calm and peace, which is so characteristic of the artist's work. Thus, the beginning of the image of ordinary everyday people ordinary Venetsianov. "Barn" - canvas, which is made in the best traditions of Russian painting.
This work is a portrait of a simple village boy. His face is depicted in close-up, the author painted his clothes in great detail, while the background in this case is shown quite conditionally, since now the artist was primarily interested in the psychological characteristics of the child. The boy's facial expression is not a childish adult. Looking at his shifted eyebrows, stubborn and straight look, firmly compressed lips, the viewer immediately realizes that he has become accustomed from an early age to the harsh working life, as indicated by the shaft of the tool, which he squeezes in his hand.
No wonder so revealing the clothes of the boy Venetsianov.Zakharka is wearing a rough coat, he wears a hat and mittens, which are obviously great for the boy. This shows the viewer that he received this clothing from an adult relative. The picture differs from the above in that the artist turned to the analysis of the personality of the peasants. The author showed mental strength, intelligence and confident character of the boy, the whole appearance of which suggests that he faces a difficult path in life.
Venetsianov dreamed of creating his own painting school. However, he did not manage to get official approval for this, although his paintings were presented to the emperor. Then he opened a school in his estate, where he raised several dozen students. Among his pupils were serfs, many of whom, according to his recommendations, were freed from serfdom.
We should also mention the attempts of Venetsianov to create his own magazine of caricatures. However, the first issue with rather bold satirical sketches of the author was confiscated, and his copies were burned. The famous artist died in 1847 as a result of an accident and was buried in the province of Tver.