Systolic murmur in the heart: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Congenital heart defects in children
Not every person has heard of such a concept as systolic sounds. It is worth saying that this condition may indicate the presence of serious pathologies in the human body. Systolic indicates that there was a failure in the body.
What is he talking about?
If a patient has sounds inside the body, this means that the process of blood flow in the heart vessels is disrupted. There is a widespread belief that systolic murmur is observed in adults.
This means that a pathological process occurs in the human body, which indicates some kind of ailment. In this case, it is necessary to undergo urgent cardiac examination.
Systolic noise implies its presence between the second heart tone and the first. The sound is fixed on the heart valves or blood flow.
The division of noise on the types
There is a certain gradation of the separation of these pathological processes:
- Functional systolic murmur. He refers to the innocent manifestation. Not dangerous for the human body.
- Organic systolic murmur. This noise character indicates the presence in the body of the pathological process.
An innocent type of noise may indicate that there are other processes in the human body that are not related to heart disease. They are of a mild nature, not long lasting, with weakly expressed intensity. If a person reduces physical activity, then the noise will disappear. Data may vary depending on the posture of the patient.
Systolic noise effects occur due to septal and valve disorders. Namely, in the human heart there is dysfunction of the partitions between the ventricles and the atria. They differ in the nature of the sound. They are solid, rigid and stable. There is a rough systolic murmur, its long duration is recorded.
These sound effects go beyond the boundaries of the heart and are reflected in the axillary and interscapular zones. If a person has subjected his body to exercise, then sound deviations persist after their completion. During physical activity, noise increases. The organic sound effects that are present in the heart are independent of the position of the body. They are equally well listened to in any position of the patient.
Sound heart effects have different acoustic meaning:
- Systolic noise of early manifestation.
- Pansystolic noise. They also have a name such as golosistolic.
- Noises of the middle-late nature.
- Systolic murmur at all points.
What factors influence the occurrence of noise?
What are the causes of systolic noise? There are several major. These include:
- Aortic stenosis. It can be either congenital or acquired. This disease occurs due to aortic stenosis. With this pathology the valve walls are spliced. This position makes it difficult for the blood to flow within the heart. Aortic stenosis can be attributed to the most common heart defect in people in adulthood.The consequence of this pathology may be aortic insufficiency, as well as mitral defect. The aortic system is designed in such a way that calcination is produced. In this regard, the pathological process is enhanced. It is also worth mentioning that the load on the left ventricle increases with aortic stenosis. In parallel with this, the brain and the heart experience insufficient blood supply.
- Aortic insufficiency. This pathology also contributes to the emergence of systolic noise. With this pathological process, the aortic valve does not close completely. Infectious endocarditis causes aortic insufficiency. The impetus for the development of this disease is rheumatism. Also, lupus erythematosus, syphilis and atherosclerosis can provoke aortic insufficiency. But injuries and defects of a congenital nature rarely lead to the occurrence of this disease. Systolic noise on the aorta indicates that the valve has aortic insufficiency. The reason for this may be the expansion of the ring or aorta.
- Washing the jumping of the acute flow is also the reason that systolic murmurs appear in the heart.This pathology is associated with the rapid movement of liquids and gases in the hollow regions of the heart as they contract. They move in the opposite direction. Typically, this diagnosis is made in violation of the functioning of the dividing walls.
- Stenosis. This pathological process is also the cause of the appearance of systolic murmurs. In this case, the contraction of the right ventricle, namely its tract, is diagnosed. This pathological process refers to 10% of cases of noise. In this situation, they are accompanied by systolic tremor. The vessels of the neck are especially irradiated.
- Stenosis of the tricuspid valve. With this pathology, the tricuspid valve narrows. Typically, rheumatic fever leads to this disease. Patients have such indicators as cold skin, fatigue, discomfort in the neck and abdomen.
Why does noise appear in children?
Why can there be a heart murmur in a child? There are many reasons. Below are the most common. So, there may be a heart murmur in a child due to the following pathologies:
- Violation of the interatrial septum.In this case, we are talking about the absence of tissue in it. This situation leads to the discharge of blood. The volume of blood discharged depends on the size of the defect and compliance of the ventricles.
- Abnormal condition of the venous return of the lungs of the child's body. There are cases of improper formation of the veins of the lungs. The essence of this is that the pulmonary veins do not communicate with the atrium to the right. They can grow together with the veins of the great circle.
- Coarctation aorta. In this case, it is a narrowing of the thoracic aorta. The child is diagnosed with a heart defect. The lumen of the aorta segmental is smaller in size than normal. This pathology is treated through surgical intervention. In the event of failure to provide medical care as they mature, the aortic narrowing will increase.
- Pathology of the interventricular septum. This defect also leads to the fact that there are noises in the heart of a systolic character. This pathology may be an isolated nature. That is, to develop on its own or combined with other cardiac dysfunctions.
- Congenital heart defects in children. An open-type arterial defect can also cause the presence of systolic murmurs in a child. A vessel is present in the structure of the heart system.It is the connecting element between the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta. The function of this body is to ensure that the child takes the first breath after birth. Further, after a short amount of time this vessel closes. There are cases of failure of this process. Then the process of shunting blood from the great circle of blood circulation to the small continues to be carried out. This is a defect in the body. In the case when a breakthrough allows a small blood flow through itself, this does not particularly affect the health of the child. But if a large blood flow happens, then the baby may begin to have complications. Namely, there may be an overload in the work of the heart. In this situation, certain symptoms appear in the body, such as shortness of breath. It also matters what heart straits are present in the body of a baby. If their flow is large, then it is possible that the condition of the newborn will be extremely difficult. In this situation, in addition to systolic murmurs, the heart itself grows in size. Urgent surgery is assigned to the child.
Congenital heart defects in children
It is worth saying a few words about newborn babes. Immediately after birth, a full body examination is performed. Including heart rate is heard. This is done in order to exclude or detect any pathological processes in the body.
With such a survey, the possibility of detecting any noise is present. But they should not always be a cause for concern. This is due to the fact that the noise is quite common in newborn babies. The fact is that the body of the child is rebuilt under the external environment. The cardiac system is re-tuned, so various noises are possible. Further examination using methods such as an x-ray and an electrocardiogram will show whether there is any abnormality or not.
The presence of congenital noise in the body of a baby is determined during the first three years of life. Noise in newborn babies may indicate that during development prior to birth, the heart was not fully formed for various reasons. In this regard, after the birth of a baby noises are recorded. They talk about congenital defects of the heart system.In the case where pathologies have a high risk to the health of the child, the doctors decide on the surgical method of treatment of a particular pathology.
Noise features: systolic murmur at the apex of the heart and in other parts of it
It is worth knowing that the characteristics of noise may vary depending on their location. For example, there is a systolic murmur at the top of the aorta.
- Pathology of the mitral valve and the associated acute failure. In this position, the noise is short-lived. Its manifestation occurs early. If this type of noise is recorded, then the patient identifies the following pathologies: hypokinesis, chord rupture, bacterial endocarditis and so on.
- Systolic murmur on the left edge of the sternum.
- Chronic mitral valve insufficiency. This type of noise is characterized by the fact that they occupy the entire duration of ventricular contraction. The size of the valve defect is proportional to the volume of blood returned and the nature of the noise. This noise is better heard if the person is in a horizontal position. With the progression of heart disease, the patient vibrates in the chest.There is also systolic murmur on the basis of the heart. Vibration is felt during systole.
- Mitral insufficiency of relative character. This pathological process is amenable to treatment with proper treatment and compliance with the recommendations.
- Systolic murmur for anemia.
- Pathological disorders of the papillary muscles. This pathology relates to myocardial infarction, as well as ischemic disorders in the heart. Systolic murmur of this type is variable. It is diagnosed at the end of systole or in the middle. There is a short systolic murmur.
The appearance of murmurs in the heart during the period of carrying a child in women
When a woman is pregnant, the occurrence of such processes as systolic murmurs in her heart is not excluded. The most common cause of their occurrence is the load on the girl's body. As a rule, heart murmurs appear in the third trimester.
In the case when they are fixed in a woman, the patient is placed under more careful control. In a medical institution where she is registered, she is constantly measured for blood pressure, checks her kidneys and other measures are being taken to monitor her condition.If a woman will be constantly monitored and implement all the recommendations that the doctors give her, then the child will be born in a good mood without any consequences.
How are diagnostic actions to identify heart murmurs?
First of all, doctors are faced with the task of determining whether there is a heart murmur or not. The patient undergoes such an examination as auscultation. At the time of her man must be first in a horizontal position, and then in the vertical. Also listening is done after exercise in the position on the left side while inhaling and exhaling. These activities are necessary to accurately determine the noise. Since they may have a different nature of occurrence, the important point is their accurate diagnosis.
For example, when the pathology of the mitral valve is necessary to listen to the apex of the heart. But with the defects of the tricuspid valve, it is better to examine the lower edge of the sternum.
An important point in this case is the exclusion of other noise that may be present in the human body. For example, with a disease like pericarditis, noise can also occur.
In order to diagnose noise effects in the human body, special technological tools are used, namely: PCG, ECG, X-ray, echocardiography. Radiography of the heart is done in three projections.
There are patients who may be contraindicated the above methods, because they have other pathological processes in the body. In this case, the person assigned an invasive examination methods. These include sensing and contrasting techniques.
Also, for accurate diagnosis of the patient's condition, namely, to measure the intensity of noise, various tests are used. The following methods are used:
- Load the patient in physical exercise. Isometric, isotonic, hand dynamometry.
- Listening to the patient's breath. It is determined whether the noise amplifies during the exhalation of the patient.
- Change in posture of the person being examined. Namely, lifting the legs when a person is standing, squatting and so on.
- Breath hold. This examination is called the Valsalva maneuver.
It is worth saying that it is necessary to make a diagnosis in time to identify noises in the human heart. The important point is to establish the cause of their occurrence. It should be remembered that systolic murmur can mean that a serious pathological process occurs in the human body. In this case, identifying the type of noise at an early stage will help to take all necessary measures to treat the patient. However, they, too, may not have any serious deviations for themselves and will pass after a certain time.
It is necessary that the doctor carefully diagnosed the noise and determine the cause of its occurrence in the body. It is also worth remembering that they accompany a person in different age periods. You should not take lightly to these manifestations of the body. It is necessary to bring diagnostic measures to the end. For example, if the noise is detected in a woman who is in a state of pregnancy, then control over her condition is obligatory.
It is recommended to check the work of the heart, even if a person has no complaints about the work of this body. Systolic noise can be detected by chance.Diagnosing the body allows you to identify any pathological changes at an early stage and take the necessary measures for treatment.