Truly the human psyche sometimes presents surprises to the representatives of Homo Sapiens: just what ridiculous syndromes and phobias a person does not have. In the ranking of the strangest Stockholm syndrome could take pride of place. What is its essence and is it possible to deal with it?
Stockholm syndrome: the essence and history of the term
A person who has heard of such a mental phenomenon may quite rightly think: “What does Stockholm have to do with it?” The fact is that for the first time the syndrome was discovered in August 1973 in the city of Stockholm in connection with the seizure of hostages in the bank.
Stockholm syndrome is a concept from psychology that characterizes a situation where a person who is undergoing some kind of aggression shows sympathy and compassion for his abuser. In such a situation, the victim of violence does not overwhelm anger or protest, but, on the contrary, she begins to feel a psychological connection with the aggressor, tries to justify his actions, and in some cases even adopts his ideas and sacrifices herself voluntarily. In short, the hostage syndrome, the Stockholm syndrome, are identical concepts.
Most often, this syndrome is observed in emergency situations involving hostage taking. But you can meet him in everyday life, in ordinary family relationships.
The case after which the study of the syndrome began
The paradoxical story that happened in Sweden in 1973 attracted not only the attention of journalists, but also famous psychologists.
In August, a former prisoner, Jan-Erik Olsson, took one of the Swedish banks along with four hostages. Despite the fact that Olsson threatened to kill people taken hostage, and also held them for six days in the bank building, when the criminal was detained, his victims suddenly suddenly defended their tyrant. Moreover, they said that during the storming of the bank, it was the police who were afraid, not Olsson himself.
After Olsson was taken away from the scene of the crime, his victims agreed to hire the best lawyer to the offender. And even when Yana-Erik was sentenced to 10 years in prison, the hostages from the bank came to visit him in prison.
So until the end it’s not known how the offender conquered his victims, so psychologists got excellent material for scientific articles, investigations and dissertations.However, the Stockholm syndrome describes the book not only of a scientific nature, but also of an artistic one: “Captured in Darkness” (S.J. Roberts), “So do brothers” (Derekika Snake), “Intervention of Love” (Olga Gorovaya) - in a word, Ian -Erik Olsson enriched not only criminology, but also literature with very piquant plots.
Factors Generating Syndrome
When psychologists began to analyze the Stockholm syndrome, they found that this phenomenon is observed not only in situations involving hostage taking, but also in other circumstances: for example, during outbreaks of domestic violence, including sexual violence; or a similar scenario is realized in many folk rituals (recall the rite of “bride kidnapping” at a wedding).
Psychologists explain that in such stressful situations, a person wants to believe in a favorable outcome of events and that the aggressor has not lost his humanity, that he will release his victim when the time comes. Therefore, the victim of aggression tries not to escalate the situation, to fulfill all the requirements, and most importantly, he tries to understand what kind of person he is in front of and what one can expect from him.
If the invader and the hostages are together for a long time, then they are forced to communicate with each other, which contributes to the humanization of relations. Moreover, the “slack” is given not only by the victims, but also by the aggressors themselves.
Domestic Stockholm Syndrome
Hostage syndrome is a fairly common phenomenon in everyday life. It is easy to guess that they suffer mainly women. However, men who position themselves as the “victim” of the current situation are also found.
Who runs the risk of earning a Stockholm syndrome? These are, first of all, people who believe that they are in no way able to influence their own lives and environment. And if it happens that they are being abused, they should only humbly accept everything that happens to them.
About how her husband mocks his wife, and she repeatedly forgives and justifies him, probably, more than a dozen films have been shot. Such women actually suffer from low self-esteem. They reject the most logical solution to the problem - the breaking of relations - because they fear that they will not meet a more worthy life partner, or they generally think that they do not deserve a better life.Which, of course, is an erroneous statement that is easy to “break down” at an appointment with an experienced psychologist.
Prevention of the Stockholm syndrome is actively engaged in the terrorists who decide to take hostages. It is not at all profitable for them to feel sympathy for their victims, therefore they purposefully avoid any contact with the hostages: they often change their guards, blindfold people and silence people, commit illogical and cruel acts, etc.
Law enforcement agencies do their best to, on the contrary, contribute to the development of the syndrome, since sympathy between criminals and their victims simplifies the negotiation process and gives certain guarantees that no one will suffer.
As for the domestic syndrome, everything is much simpler there: first, you need to realize the illogic and absurdity of your own behavior; secondly, you should contact a psychologist, who at the professional level will help to cope with the problem.
Notable cases in Russia
Stockholm syndrome in Russia is known not by hearsay. For example, many prisoners of Stalin's concentration camps literally “prayed” to the great leader, on whose orders they were arrested, and also cried for him when Joseph Vissarionovich died in 1953.
Russian women are famous for their “sacrifice”; therefore, they more often than others fall into sentimental “family” stories, where either a compatriot or a foreign husband becomes their tyrant.
Notable cases abroad
Abroad, you can also find a couple of cases where you can clearly see what the Stockholm syndrome is.
The examples of the 2000s in the US are fading in front of an amazing case of the 70s when one of the terrorist organizations kidnapped the granddaughter of a newspaper billionaire, Patricia Hurst. Despite the fact that her family paid the entire sum demanded to the kidnappers, the girl never returned to her relatives.
A little later it became known that she joined the organization "The Symbionist Liberation Army" which had abducted her. And this is despite the fact that "SAO" applied to her not only physical abuse, but also sexual! After her arrest in the 75th, Hearst stated that she had joined the SAO series under psychological pressure. After the girl served her due term for bank robbery, she returned to normal life.