Is restoration what it is? Types of restoration
Restoration is not boring at all, as it may seem at first glance! It represents an interesting, fascinating, noble and incredibly useful sphere of human activity.
So what is a restoration? What are its types? And what is the meaning of the word "restoration"? Let's try to answer all these questions in our article.
Restoration: the meaning and origin of the word
Every term has its origin. So what is a restoration? The word it comes from the Latin restauratio, which means "restore", "recreate." In the broadest sense, it is the process of restoring something in its former, original appearance. Revival, reconstruction, restoration, reconstruction - all these words are in one way or another synonymous with the term “restoration”.
The definition of this concept in a narrower meaning is slightly different. In particular, when it comes to the restoration of cultural heritage. In this case, restoration is a complex of specific measures aimed at strengthening the monuments of human culture, their preservation,restoration of lost or damaged items. It is not only about architectural structures. This concept also includes the restoration of works of art, archaeological artifacts, etc.
The first information about the restoration work dates from the Middle Ages. And in the middle of the 17th century, serious schools of professional architectural restoration began to be created in Europe.
What can be restored?
You can restore a lot of things: furniture, old buildings, bridges, paintings, sculptures, cars, motorcycles, photographs ... Occupation is not so routine and boring as it may seem at first glance. For example, do-it-yourself furniture restoration is not so much work as real art, magic! After all, the master involved in this business, returns a new life to those interior items that others would have long been thrown into a landfill.
There is such a thing as "restoration of teeth." This is the process of restoring their shape and function when damaged. An interesting and quite popular occupation is the restoration of photographs.It involves the removal of stains, cracks and creases in old photographs. There are also technologies that allow to recover torn photos.
Some humanities also use the word "restoration." The definition of history, for example, in this term is the following: it is the restoration of a collapsed political system or regime in a particular state. In the national history of France there is even a separate period - the era of the Restoration (the end of the XVIII - the beginning of the XIX century).
Monuments of architecture and the importance of their preservation
Architectural monuments are called immovable objects of material or spiritual creativity of man. They can be either individual buildings (churches, churches, palaces, castles), or their complexes (streets, squares, or entire settlements). At the same time, any such object must have a certain value: historical, town-planning or artistic.
Monuments of architecture are part of the cultural heritage of world civilization. In addition, they give us information about the features and values of a particular historical era. That is why the preservation of ancient monuments is a very important task of modern society. And its implementation should be approached in a comprehensive, competent and responsible manner.
By the way, restoration is not always the lot of experienced professionals and narrow specialists in this field. For example, the French company Rempart proposes on a volunteer basis to do this interesting business for ordinary people and students. To participate in one of their projects, it is enough for a person to leave a request and fill in the corresponding questionnaire.
Architectural restoration: features and principles
Buildings are destroyed due to ill-considered and irresponsible human actions, due to harmful environmental conditions, or simply over time.
According to the current Russian legislation, the restoration includes an extensive range of research, design, repair and engineering activities that are carried out on immovable historical, cultural and architectural monuments.
During the traditional restoration, as a rule, is carried out:
- strengthening of the foundation, as well as the frame of the building using various means;
- identification and elimination of defects in the structure of the structure;
- restoration of individual architectural elements of the monument (for example, wall stucco).
Restoration of any architectural or cultural monument takes place in accordance with the principles of historicism, expediency, science and minimization of the intervention of the restoration team in the original historical material.
How to restore historic buildings?
The process of restoration of an object includes several successive stages. It begins with a comprehensive and comprehensive study of the monument, which provides for both an external inspection of the building, and a thorough study of a variety of archival materials. It is also very important to conduct continuous monitoring of the structure in order to identify all its “diseases” and damages in time.
The next stage of restoration work is design. Based on the results of a comprehensive study of the monument, a detailed preliminary draft of its restoration is drawn up. In the future, it is considered and approved (or not approved) by the relevant commission.
Restoration activities are necessarily accompanied by detailed photographic recording of all the work carried out. Moreover, the chief architect has the right to stop work at any time, having discovered certain errors in the project.
In modern restoration a number of special materials and paints are used. Among them, levkas (a special kind of soil), turpentine, shellac (natural resin), pastel, gold leaf, dimethylformamide, glues of animal origin, etc.
Types of restoration work
In practice, there are several types of restoration work, depending on the ultimate goal of this event. Such a goal could be either the restoration of individual lost elements of a building, or the elimination of structural defects (cracks, chips, faults, etc.), or the improvement of the appearance of the monument.
Based on this restoration can be commercial or museum-scientific. In the first case, the goal of the work is the complete restoration of the building’s functionality, and in the second, only its conservation and preservation.
Restoration also happens:
Everything is quite obvious here. Holistic restoration is the complete restoration of the original features and functions of a building. Works in this case are the most difficult in technical terms. Fragmentary (or partial) restoration is reduced to the repair of only one of the structural elements of the building. For example, it may be the cleaning of the main facade from various third-party layers.
What is disclosure, preservation and reconstruction?
Restoration is a kind of generalized concept, combining in themselves somewhat different from each other in terms of the content of work: disclosure, preservation, repair and reconstruction. All of them can be either stages of a single restoration process or independent activities. Let's get acquainted in general with the essence and features of these works.
Disclosure is a type of restoration and restoration work, which is more typical for objects and monuments of art. Its essence is to rid one or another cultural monument of the layers of a later age. That is, to reveal, "get to the bottom" to its original form. As an example, the disclosure of ancient frescoes of the Savior Transfiguration Church in the Belarusian city of Polotsk. In 2015, in order to “liberate” the painting of the XII century, the restorers had to remove two later layers of the XIX century.
Preservation is a set of measures aimed at suspending the process of destruction of a specific monument. These include cleaning, disinfection, waterproofing, strengthening walls and vaults, etc.Under the restoration repair imply a set of works aimed at eliminating the deterioration of the structure and restoring the original decorative appearance of its facades.
Reconstruction - the most difficult and responsible type of restoration work. This is a radical restructuring of the building with full or partial redevelopment of the premises inside it.
Restoration of “before” and “after”: some successful examples
The preservation of ancient buildings and architectural complexes in Europe began to actively engage only in the XVIII century. Today, restoration work in many European countries is carried out using the latest technology and attracting highly qualified specialists. Let's look at some successful examples of the restoration of historic buildings.
The photos below are the castle of Pierrefon in France before and after restoration. It was rebuilt from the ruins at the end of the 19th century by order of Napoleon III.
Peterhof Palace is another example of an excellent restoration. The ensemble was destroyed during the Second World War.
The famous Frauenkirche in Dresden was also destroyed by the war. It was restored from scratch in the early 2000s.
How to save architectural monuments in developed countries of Europe?
Obviously, the restoration of old buildings is not a cheap pleasure. In our country, the protection of architectural monuments often goes to the second, and even to the third plan. But in some European countries, everything is different. Germany, Italy, France, as well as the Czech Republic are following the most architectural and historical heritage.
For example, German law provides for huge fines for damage or illegal reconstruction of monuments of national architecture (from 50 thousand to 1 million euros). No less stringent rules in the Czech Republic. For example, if valuable objects of art are located in an old mansion, then its owner will even be obliged to observe a certain temperature regime in his house.
But France, in order to save its many architectural monuments, sells them in private hands. In addition, the French actively attract volunteers from around the world to restore their cultural heritage.