Philosopher Abelard Pierre: The Essence of Views
Pierre Abelard, whose philosophy was repeatedly condemned by the Catholic Church, was a medieval scholastic thinker, poet, theologian and musician. He was one of the representatives of conceptualism. Consider further than this man is famous.
Pierre Abelard: Biography
The thinker was born near Nantes, in the village of Le Palais in a knightly family in 1079. Initially it was assumed that he would enter military service. However, the irresistible craving for scholastic dialectics and curiosity prompted Abelard to devote himself to the sciences. He became a cleric scholar, abandoning the right of the Mayorate. In adolescenceAbelard pierrewas a lecturer of John Roszelin, who was the founder of nominalism. In 1099 he arrived in Paris. Here Abelard wanted to learn from Guillaume de Champo - a representative of realism. The latter attracted listeners from all over Europe to its lectures.
Start of activity
Some time after arriving in Paris, Abelard Pierre became an opponent and rival of Champo.In 1102 he began teaching at Saint-Genevieve, Corbel and Melun. The number of his students was growing rapidly. As a result, he and Shampo became irreconcilable enemies. After the latter was elevated to the dignity of the Shalon bishop, Abelard took over the management of the church school in 1113. Pierre at this time reached the peak of his glory. He was a teacher of many people who later became famous. Among them are Celestine II (Pope of Rome), Arnold of Brescia, Peter Lombard.
At the very beginning of his activity, Abelard Pierre showed himself as a tireless debater. He brilliantly mastered the art of dialectics and constantly used it in discussions. For this he was constantly expelled from the audience and students. Repeatedly, he attempted to establish his own school. In the end, he managed to do it. The school was founded on the hill of sv. Genevieve. She quickly filled with many students. In 1114-1118 Abelard headed the department at the school of Notre Dame. Students from all over Europe came to him.
It occurred in 1119. Tragedy is connected with the love that Pierre Abelard had for one of her students.The story began beautifully. Young people got married, they had a child. However, the story is very sad. Eloise's parents were totally against marriage. They took cruel measures and tore up their daughter's marriage. Eloise was cut into nuns. Soon, San himself took Abelard. Pierre settled in the monastery and continued lecturing. This was unhappy with many reputable religious figures. In 1121 a church council was convened in Soissons. Pierre Abelard was invited to it. In short, the Council was convened in order that the thinker by sentence could burn his labor. After that, he was sent to another monastery, where a more severe charter operated.
The views of Pierre Abelard were shared by many of his contemporaries. The patrons of the thinker achieved his transfer to the former monastery. However, here too, Abelard did not manage to maintain good relations with the monks and the abbot. As a result, he was allowed to settle near the town of Troyes near the monastery. Soon, many students began to gather here. Around his chapel stood the huts in which his admirers lived. In 1136, Abelard again began teaching in Paris.Among the students he was a huge success. At the same time, the number of his enemies has significantly increased. In the city of Sanse in 1140 the Council was again convened. Church leaders condemned all the works of Abelard and accused him of heresy.
After the Council of the 1140th, the city of Abelard decides to personally visit the Pope of Rome and ask for an appeal. However, on the way he fell ill and was forced to stay at the Monastery of Cluny. It is worth saying that his trip could change little, since soon the decision adopted by the Council was approved by Innocent II. Pope condemned the thinker to "eternal silence." In Cluny in 1142, Abelard died during prayer. Saying an epitaph on the grave, like-minded people and friends called him "the greatest Plato in the West," "French Socrates." Twenty years later, Heloise was buried here. Her last will was to unite forever with her lover.
The essence of the views of Pierre Abelardset out in his writings "Dialectics", "Yes and No", "Introduction to Theology" and others. It is worth noting that not so much Abelard’s own views were subjected to sharp criticism. His thoughts concerning the problem of God cannot be called particularly original.Perhaps it was only in the interpretation of the Holy Trinity that his Neo-Platonic motifs appeared. Here Abelard regards God the Son and the Holy Spirit only as attributes of the Father, through which the power of the latter is expressed. This concept was the reason for condemnation. However, the most criticism was caused by something else. Abelard was a Christian, a sincere believer. Nevertheless, there were doubts about the teaching itself. He saw obvious contradictions in Christian dogma, unsubstantiated many theories. This, in his opinion, did not allow to fully know God.
Pierre Abelard and Bernard Klervosky
The main reason for the condemnation of the concept of the thinker was his doubt in the proof of Christian dogma. Bernard Klervosky was one of the judges of Abelard. He condemned the thinker more sharply than anyone. Klervosky wrote that Abelard ridicules the faith of simple, recklessly discusses issues that relate to the highest. He believed that in his works the author subjected the fathers to their reproach for their desire to keep silent about some issues. In some records, Klervosky concretizes his claims to Abelard.He says that the thinker through his wisdom tries to study what is given to the pious mind through his faith.
The essence of the concept
Abelard can be considered the founder of the rationalized philosophy of the Western European Middle Ages. For the thinker there was no other power capable of forming a Christian teaching in its true manifestation, besides science. The basis he saw in the first place philosophy. The author claimed the divine, higher origin of logic. In reasoning, he relied on the beginning of the Gospel - "in the beginning was the word." In Greek, this phrase sounds somewhat different. "Word" is replaced by the term "logo". Abelard points out that Jesus calls the “logos” of God the Father. From Christ went the name "Christians". Accordingly, from the "logos" occurred and logic. Abelard called her "the greatest wisdom of the Father." He believed that logic was given to enlighten people with "true wisdom."
She was, according to Abelard, the highest form of logic. With the help of dialectics, he sought, on the one hand, to reveal all the contradictions in the Christian doctrine, and on the other - to eliminate them, having developed an evidence-based dogma.That is why he pointed out the need for critical interpretation and analysis of the texts of the writings, works of Christian philosophers. An example of such a reading, he cited in his work "Yes and no." Abelard developed the key principles of all subsequent Western European science. He said that knowledge is possible only if critical analysis is applied to its subject. Having revealed an internal inconsistency, it is necessary to find an explanation for it. The set of principles of knowledge is called methodology. Abelard can be considered one of its creators in the Western European Middle Ages. This is his contribution to scientific knowledge.
The key principle of philosophical research, Abelard formulates in the work "Know yourself." In his work, he writes that the human mind, consciousness, is the source of actions. The author considers moral principles that were considered divine from the point of view of rationalism. For example, he sees sin as an act that is committed contrary to the reasonable beliefs of a person. Abelard rationally interpreted the whole Christian idea of redemption. He believed that the main purpose of Christ was not to remove sin from humanity, but to show the example of true life with his highly moral behavior.Abelard constantly emphasizes that morality is a consequence of reason. Morality is the practical embodiment of the conscious beliefs of humanity. And they are already laid by God. On this side, Abelard was the first to identify ethics as a practical science, calling it "the goal of all knowledge." All knowledge must ultimately be expressed in moral behavior. After a while, this understanding of ethics became prevalent in most Western European schools. In the controversy of nominalism and realism, Abelard was in a special position. The Thinker did not consider universals or ideas as exclusively simple names, abstractions. In this case, the author did not agree with the realists. He argued that ideas form a universal reality. Abelard argued that one entity does not fit the individual in its entirety, but only individually.
Abelard was the author of six volume poems created in the crying genre, as well as many lyric hymns. He is probably the author of sequences, including the very popular Mittit ad Virginem. These genres were “text-musical”, that is, they suggested reading in a singing voice.With great probability, Abelard composed music for his works. Of the recorded hymns, only O quanta qualia is preserved. The last complete work of Abelard is considered the "Dialogue of the Philosopher, the Jew and the Christian." It provides an analysis of the three options for reflection, which serves as a common basis for ethics. Already in the Middle Ages, his correspondence with Eloise became a literary treasure. The images of people whose love was stronger than the tonsure and separation, attracted many poets and writers. Among them are Villon, Farrer, Pope.