Installation of external sewerage: equipment, technology

Those times when convenience on country siteswere in the courtyard, fortunately, long gone. Almost every owner of a private house prefers to equip the sewage system today. Especially since it costs to install it usually is not too expensive. Plumbing devices in this case are installed directly inside the building and connected to a common riser. The drains from the house are drained along the mains of the external sewage system. Of course, when assembling an external system for the disposal of contaminated water, certain standards and technologies must be strictly observed. Otherwise, in the subsequent hosts of the house there is a huge number of completely unnecessary problems.

Installation of external sewerage: features

Before you proceed with the actual assemblyof the external system of diversion and disposal of wastewater, we should, of course, draw up a detailed project and make all necessary calculations. When developing the scheme of external sewerage, it is necessary to determine with:

  • type of equipment used,

  • the location of the wastewater receiver,

  • place and method of trenching.

installation of external sewerage

Necessary materials and equipment

Installation of external sewerage of a country house with the use of:

  • pipes of large diameter;

  • associated materials (fittings, insulation, inspection wells);

  • a septic tank or the materials necessary for arrangement of a cesspool (cement, crushed stone);

  • if necessary fecal pump.

Which pipes to choose

The first, which should be determined whendrawing up the project of external sewerage of a country house, is, of course, with a kind of highways themselves. Modern industry offers mainly two types of sewer pipes: cast iron and plastic. The first option in private houses is used quite rarely. The fact is that cast-iron pipes, first, are expensive, and secondly, are prone to rust and are fragile. In addition, such trunks are difficult to assemble. After all, the weight of cast-iron pipes is considerable. They can be installed only with the use of special equipment.

pvc pipe

Plastic sewage pipes of all these drawbacks are completely devoid of. Among their advantages, among other things, are:

  1. Light weight.No special equipment when installing plastic trunking is not necessary. Installation of such pipes in the trench can be done by even one person.

  2. Low cost. The price of plastic pipes is much lower than that of cast-iron ones.

  3. Smooth inner surface. In such pipes, with proper installation, sediment and clogs are never formed.

The plastic mains are slightly smaller than the cast iron ones. But all the same, as manufacturers say, lying in the ground without the need for a replacement, they can very long - up to 90 years.

Sometimes the installation of external sewerage is carried outalso using asbestos cement or ceramic pipes. And that, and another variety of highways can serve a very long time. However, asbestos and ceramic pipes, as well as cast-iron pipes, are rather difficult to stack in trenches because of their heavy weight. Yes, and they are quite expensive.

Types of plastic pipes

For the assembly of external sewerage of a private house, pipes can be used:

  1. Corrugated polyethylene. The main advantage of highways, assembled from pipes of this variety, is increased strength.

  2. Polypropylene.Such pipes are not particularly strong, but they can withstand very high temperatures. They are used more often yet for the assembly of internal sewer systems.

  3. Polyvinylchloride.This variety of highways is characterized by high strength and ability to easily withstand winter cold.

slope of sewage pipe of external sewerage

Most often in suburban areas for layingThus, a PVC pipe is used in the external sewerage system. On the strength of such highways are slightly inferior to corrugated polyethylene, but at the same time they are much cheaper.

In turn, polyvinyl chloride pipes are divided into three classes:

  • light (it is impossible to lay under the carriageway);

  • Average (can be mounted under the carriageway with not too intensive traffic);

  • heavy (can also be used for laying industrial networks).

In suburban areas, light or medium-strength pipes are usually used.

What should be the diameter

Through the sewer system of a country housepass sewage, containing a fairly large particles of dirt and waste. It is in this connection that the use of pipes of rather large diameter is that in this case the SNiP standards are prescribed. Outside water supply and sewerage should be laid, of course, taking into account the needs of people living in the house. However, the diameter of the drain line, in accordance with regulations, in any case should not be less than 100-110 mm. The latter option is considered the most preferable. If the sewage system is equipped immediately for several out-of-town buildings, pipes with a diameter of at least 200 mm should be used for laying the external pipelines.

What can be a septic tank

When drafting an external drainage systemat home, among other things, should be determined and with the type of receiver of sewage. Of course, the laying of external sewage can also be carried out in a conventional cesspool. However, in this case, the owners of the house in the future are waiting for a lot of problems, such as, for example, unpleasant smells or the need for a periodic call of a sewer machine. Therefore, most owners of country houses today prefer to use a special device - a septic tank - as a wastewater receiver. The most popular types of such equipment there are only two:

  • concrete self-made septic tanks;

  • ready factory models.

The first type of receiver isthere are two (and sometimes more) installed in the pits of the communicating concrete rings. In the first one, sewage water is purified from the largest particles. The bottom of this well is concreted. In the second receiver, the remaining liquid part is finally defended.

external water supply and sewerage networks

Installation of external sewage networks withusing a concrete septic tank has the advantage of being very inexpensive. However, in simple concrete rings, sewage, of course, is not cleaned particularly effectively. In addition, and the sewer machine in this case, albeit less frequently than when using a cesspool, but it is more likely to be called occasionally from time to time. Therefore, most often the owners of suburban areas use more advanced factory septic tanks for disposal of plums from their homes. Such models differ not only in efficiency and long service life, but also in ease of installation.

Within each factory septic tank there is aseveral compartments, in which there is separation and sedimentation of wastewater. Also in the case of modern models there is a special microflora that promotes the decomposition of feces and waste into components devoid of odor.

How to choose a place for a septic tank

Install the receiver on the site, performing the installation of external sewage, you need taking into account the following factors:

  • from the residential building to the location of the septic tank should not be less than 5 meters;

  • The distance from the well or well to the receiver should be at least 30-50 m.

Choose a place for a septic tank,so that the drain line from the building to it could be laid in a straight line. In this case, the sewerage system will work as efficiently as possible - without blockages.

The pit under the septic tank

The dimensions of the pit under the receiver depend, of course,first of all from the dimensions of this particular model. Digging pits for septic tanks usually using special equipment. But, of course, if desired, the owner of a country house can save and perform earthworks independently. In any case, orient the foundation pit in such a way that the inlet branch of the septic tank is subsequently located towards the building.

Pipe laying rules

External water supply and sewerage networks,of course, must be installed in accordance with certain standards. So, trenches for drainage are excavated in accordance with SNiP only below the freezing level of the ground. Some owners of suburban areas of this rule do not adhere and lay pipes at a shallower depth, insulating them with mineral wool or other insulators. Sufficiently effective in winter time can work and such sewerage. However, no one can give a guarantee that the highway will not freeze at some point.

external sewerage pvc

In private houses there are basically two typesexternal sewage: gravity and pressure. In this case, the first option is used most often. When settling gravity sewage pipes are laid with a slight bias towards the septic tank. That is, the waste water in such a system leaves the house in the receiver under the influence of the natural force of gravity.

Pressure system in a country house is mountedOnly when there is no opportunity to reach the main line with the necessary inclination. In this case, the faecal pump is additionally included in the system. Such an external sewerage system makes it possible, with a high probability of avoiding the occurrence of blockages. However, in this case, the owners of the house, for understandably reasons, have to increase the cost of electricity.

At what angle should pipes be laid

Below we present to the attention of the reader a table from which you can learn about how to properly mount the external sewerage main at home with one or another of its diameters.

Required slope when laying pipes of external sewerage

Pipe diameter

Optimal bias

Minimum allowable slope

100 mm

2 centimeters per running meter

1.2 cm

150 mm

1 cm

7 mm

200 mm

8 mm

0.5 mm

Thus, too small biasthe mains of the external drainage should not be. Otherwise, the water pressure in the gravity system will not be sufficient to move large particles into the septic tank. However, a very big deviation of the sewage pipe of the external sewerage system is not worth doing. Otherwise, water will flow through the pipe very quickly, and solid particles will linger inside it. Which, of course, will also lead to frequent blockages. When settling the external drainage of a private house, it is best, therefore, to adhere to the optimal indicators of the slope of the mains towards the septic tank.

external sewerage price

Inspection wells

Sometimes it happens that a straight line drainthe highway to the septic tank can not be laid. In this case, the external sewerage of PVC (or any other) must be mounted so that all the knees in it are connected at an obtuse angle. Otherwise, the highway will be constantly clogged. Over each knee, in such a system, inspection wells are arranged to facilitate servicing. The latter in most cases are ordinary plastic rings or large diameter pipes with a lid.

External sewage: the price of the question

When developing a sewage system projectAt home, a budget of all future expenses is usually drawn up. The total cost of laying the sewerage depends on many factors, the decisive of which is the number of people living in the house and, accordingly, the amount of water they use. In general, when calculating the cost of external sewerage are taken into account:

  • length of the main line and type of pipes used;

  • cost of a septic tank (depends on dimensions and productivity).

external sewage system

Also, the total cost of installing the system can bedepend on the need to use a fecal pump, as well as various additional elements. A PVC pipe with a diameter of 110 mm costs approximately 150-180 rubles. (for 10 m). The price for a small septic tank "Tank" for 1200 liters is about 25 thousand rubles. For the fecal pump, depending on the brand and productivity, will have to give from 7 to 25 thousand rubles.

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