How to make an express analysis of water at home?
Do you wonder what kind of water you drink? Would you like to know how to determine its quality? This can be done in different ways, the main of which is to take the sample to the laboratory. But expert quality assessment lasts a long time and is expensive. In this article you will learn how to do an express analysis of water at home.
Organoleptic properties of water
The easiest way to find out whether you can drink water or not is to evaluate its organoleptic properties, in simple words, to carry out a rapid analysis of water by smell, taste and color. In fact, a person performs such actions almost always before they eat or drink something. And he does it subconsciously, without thinking.
Water testing is performed as follows: if it has an acceptable color, then you need to smell it, with an acceptable odor, you need to try and evaluate the taste. The decision on suitability for use is made according to a set of parameters.
Important! It is recommended to taste the water after boiling it for 10 minutes.
Naturally, the accuracy of the organoleptic analysis is low and you should not rely solely on it. Such a measure is effective in the case when there are no other means at hand, and the senses are always with you.
Express water analysis by this method allows you to unambiguously identify the problem composition. But if any indicator turns out to be suspicious, this is a reason to turn in a liquid for laboratory testing.
Water smells bad, what's the reason?
Unlike taste, an unpleasant smell is a more accurate indicator of the problem. The most common causes of its occurrence are:
- penetration of refined products or chemicals into water;
- chemical reactions occurring in water, primarily oxidation;
- active activity of microbes and bacteria in water.
To cope with the first two reasons, it is necessary to carry out mechanical and sorption purification, only in some cases more thorough filtration will be required. For example, reverse osmosis system.
If microelements are actively developed in water, it is necessary to neutralize them by disinfection. You can apply chlorination or UV treatment.
In addition, the reasons for the unpleasant smell of water can serve such circumstances as increased stiffness or temperature conditions of the environment. To reduce the stiffness, you can use the softeners.
Polyphosphate filters do a good job. Important! Do not use them for the purification of drinking water, only for liquids used for technical purposes.
Color and transparency
Absolute transparency is a sign of perfect water. Express analysis of color characteristics can be carried out in the following ways:
- Type water in a translucent glass or flask and view the contents against a white sheet of paper. If the liquid has a dark shade, it most likely contains a huge amount of actively decomposing organic elements.
- Pour water into a transparent vessel and try to read through it some text written on white paper. The glass must be absolutely smooth, otherwise the characters will be distorted.The water in the glass should be at the level of 20 cm, no less. If all printed signs are clearly visible, then the liquid is sufficiently transparent, otherwise it is worth thinking about its quality.
The turbidity of the water indicates a large number of fine mist or other dissolved components. These include both organic and inorganic combinations. One should not forget that such water is an ideal medium for the spread of various microorganisms.
To carry out a rapid analysis of drinking water for the presence of mechanical connections, it is enough to fill the tank with it and let it settle. If a precipitate has formed, it means that the liquid must be passed through a fine mechanical filter.
Hardness and Ph of water
To determine the stiffness enough to lather. Water with a high level of hardness is difficult to lather and practically does not form foam. But Ph is recommended to check the rapid analysis (test) of water using special indicators, such as litmus paper.
Such kits are most often used for home inspections.Test strips are different, depending on how many components are designed study. On sale are presented in a wide range of types of kits for express water analysis:
- Test systems type of IT. The study is conducted using indicator tubes. The degree of accumulation of the active substance affects the coloring of the tester. This method has a high level of confidence, simplicity and good sensitivity.
- Test sets of the PC type. Verification is carried out using ready-made compositions or mixtures of reagents. The color of the solution indicates the concentration of a substance in the water. Such kits are great for colorimetric and spectrophotometric analysis.
- Sets of testers of a type of SP. Indicator pigments are involved in the verification process. Depending on the concentration of the constituents, the color of the pigment changes. Express water analysis with such a kit is quite simple, and the result is accurate and fast.
- Special kits for determining the quality indicators of water. With their help, it is possible to analyze the concentration of a particular substance: chlorine, cyanic acid and others.
Devices for rapid analysis of water are very compact in size and easy to use, everyone can understand the verification process. Most of them are suitable for use at home. Each set includes instructions for use, which describes the research process in detail. Acceptable cost of such testers is an advantage for the common man.
How to take samples for water testing?
To obtain the most accurate result, it is extremely important to prevent foreign elements from entering the sample. For example, a poorly cleaned container for drawing water to a sample can adversely affect and distort the test results. So, when selecting water, you must adhere to the following rules:
- It is necessary to pour liquid for research into a clean container or a special bag. The best option is to purchase sterile plastic containers in a pharmacy.
- Before you draw water, you should wipe the tap or valve with medical alcohol, as well as handle their hands or wear sterile gloves.
- Before you set the water for testing, it must be lowered for 5–10 minutes at full pressure, depending on the type of source.
- Depending on the expected number of studies, recruit one or more containers with volumes from 0.5–1.0 liters.
- Now you can start testing with reagents, powders, tubes, litmus papers and other improvised means.
Important! If you are going to use several testers, then each of them should be prepared in a separate container.