How to make a movie? The process of creating a movie. Film crew
Film production is called the process of creating a film from the beginning of the formation of the idea itself, right up to the showing of the finished film to the audience. It represents a particular difficulty, since in all cases it requires the involvement of a large number of people who are professionals in various fields of activity. And I would like to talk about this, how to make a movie, as well as many other nuances affecting this process.
Without a good and high-quality equipment for shooting the film does not seem possible. Everyone remembers how good the “picture” is in such films as “Transformers”, “Pirates of the Caribbean”, “The Avenger”, etc. These films, like the vast majority of Hollywood films, were filmed with RED cameras. And they can afford only a professional film studio. Because EPIC-M RED DRAGON, for example, costs more than 3,265,000 rubles.But what is the dynamic range and detail of this camera!
Also need recording equipment. To obtain high-quality phonogram synchronous shooting is used. The sound is recorded with the image, but on a different technique. So that it is of high quality and “clean”, microphones are used on the buttonholes, which are mounted so that they are not visible in the frame. But not everyone uses this method. In a large number of cases, the sound is overwritten in the studio, but it takes a lot of time, since it is necessary to achieve perfect synchrony with the image.
However, shooting video and audio is only half the battle. The crucial step is the installation process, which also requires professional equipment. To do this, you need powerful computers and serious programs, with the help of which you can make decent special effects. Here, for example, Avid Media Composer. This is a program for non-linear editing. It was in it that films such as The Beginning, The Chronicles of Narnia, The Black Swan, The Iron Man, The Dark Knight, etc. were created.
Talking about how to make a movie, it is impossible not to note this moment with attention. Script writing is the first stage. Except for the discussion of ideas, of course.The script of the film is its literary basis. It defines the theme, plot, issues and characters of the main characters.
The 80 pages of the script are equal to 2,600 meters of filmed film. And about 4-5 thousand words of dialogue. A 120 pages of the script are equal to four kilometers of film. In the process of its creation can also participate director and producer. They often become co-writers. And by the way, not everyone can be one. The film script has its own specifics. The descriptive parts should be as short as possible, but the dialogues are written clearly and in detail. It is also important to carry out work on the ratio of sound and visual series. Separate pages are allocated for each scene - it helps to determine the sequence in the development of a film plot.
And when the basis is written, the script is given to production editing. Which is necessary in order to determine the length of the film, the number of scenery, objects of shooting, actors, as well as the need for organizing expeditions. This is necessary for obvious reasons. And in order to calculate the financial costs that require the shooting of the film.
This is the head, the head of the film crew. It is he who is responsible for the stage and artistic components of the film.
The first task of the director is to determine the main idea of the film. Two important questions that he must answer - what does he want to tell the audience, and what should they understand?
Then the director determines the overall artistic style of the film. However, usually it is not even taken out in a separate stage. In a good director, he is already worked out. The most striking example of modernity is Quentin Tarantino. In his films, he often refers to forgotten, unpopular genres. “Kill Bill,” for example, is a real samurai movie. The “proof of death” is the natural exportation of the 70s. In "Django" traced the features of westerns. Even in the films of Quentin, black beautiful humor and justified cruelty are not rare. Branded photography from below, the hero's conversation in front of the mirror, close-ups of women’s feet, scenes in the toilet ... Quentin has a lot of highlights. In many ways, they define the style of the film. And a good director, like him, all these features come in handy, because they are applied in accordance with the genre and theme.
But it is worth returning to the duties of the director. In addition to the above, he must implement the script, bring it to life, and throughout the filming process lead the process and the actors. In general, his duties include literally everything - from managing the work of cameramen to installation.
Well, of whom the film crew "consists" - it is clear, but what about the process itself? This is a separate topic.
Usually the first sound engineer appears on the site. He needs to install microphones, check the noise level, and also make sure that the recording equipment and the shadows from them do not fall into the frame.
Then illuminators appear. They need to install cameras and turn on the equipment. After the operators arrive, they check the readiness of their equipment. When the director appears on the set, everything should be ready. And the crew with the actors as well.
After the “Motor!” Command, given by the director, his assistant appears in the frame with a clapper board, on which the scene number and its double are written. This is done for a reason. And in order that the director then quickly chose the most successful option.
When is cotton given? After the switched on camera picks up the necessary speed, and the sound engineer starts recording the sound and makes sure that the image is synchronized with it. As soon as the assistant gave the cotton and left the frame, the operator re-checks to see if something “extra” is in the frame. If not, then he gives the appropriate signal to the director. And he gives the second command: “Camera!” After that, the actors play the scene, which takes a few seconds / minutes. After the command of the director “Shot!” The process stops.
Behind the scenes
Talking about how to make a movie, it is impossible not to note the attention and those people without whom no film will work. It is, of course, about the actors. They are preceded by casting, but this is a slightly different topic. What happens on the set?
Actors appear on it long before the start of the process. They need to change clothes for the role and make up. Accordingly, stylists come to the pavilion even earlier.
They also need to tune in to the shooting. Some “sharks” of the actor business do not need this, but others need some time to enter the role. By the way, what about the texts? They are not taught by all.This is a film, not a theater, where you need to learn the whole play. Movies are filmed by the minute, and most often by the second. In addition, there are always assistants on the site with text in their hands.
There are such members of the crew. Substitutes are “instead of” the actors in the frame before the camera starts working. This is necessary for the technicians to check the distance, sound, image, light balance. And his role is important. Since the installation of light is a very long and exhausting process. And in order not to disturb the actor, they hire substitute ones. They, on the instructions of the director, pass in the planned ways, they say the text.
Role seems unimportant? Far from it, professional substitute significantly speeds up the process of creating a movie. By the way, they are often used as body doubles. If they look like actors, of course. If you plan to shoot from the back or at a distance, then the role plays a substitute.
This moment should be noted attention, telling about how to make a movie taken in Hollywood. So, there is always an operator at the site. He is responsible for how “beautiful” the picture is.It is he who gives each frame a visual style and atmosphere, using his knowledge regarding lighting methods, camera types, camera angles, lenses, photo emulsions, etc.
Also in the crew should include a conceptual artist. On his shoulders is the task of making a storyboard. This is a series of sketches used to illustrate a script. The conceptualist creates on paper for the director plans for the scenes that are described in a literary basis, including scenery and details. In other words, this is a sketch of how everything should be during the shooting. The director, screenwriter, main cameraman, the decoration and art division - they all work with the conceptualist in tandem.
Also on the site there is a production designer, directing the design of the shooting area. On his shoulders are the tasks of preparing the background, costume and scenery. The art director works under his supervision - he controls the work of groups of artists and decorators. But this is not the whole composition. The scenery artist (often an architect by training) draws up plans and materials supplements that are needed to build what is needed for the shooting.Only those objects and elements are built that can get into the lens (meaning dimensions). Further, all plans are agreed with the director, and transferred to the carpenters, who are building the scenery.
There is also a stage decorator and his assistant. They decorate the interior of the room, find the necessary items to create the atmosphere, and arrange them so that everything looks natural. Even if you plan to create an anchorite refuge.
It also implies the process of filmmaking. In general, it is very difficult to find a good administrator of a film crew (this is the correct name for this profession). Because he is responsible for organizing the whole process. How to make a good movie? Not without the help of the administrator.
It is this person who should know where to connect lights in an area in which even the concept of "electricity" never sounded, where to get snow in the 30-degree heat, from whom you can rent a kangaroo with delivery. Also, these specialists choose places for filming on the director’s “order”, extract work permits where it is needed, coordinate the work of various departments of the film studio.
The duties of administrators are numerous.They are busy with the work of planning, coordinating, launching and implementing a film project, monitoring the punctuality of team members and accompanying them during filming, briefing, and payment for work. They also deal with documentation - contracts, statements, consent to the use of copyrighted images or music.
The administrator always has a job. And there is a lot of it. That is why for administrators they hire assistants - for help. They, in turn, are engaged in the timely delivery of props, food and water.
Above was not listed all the shooting equipment and professionals involved in the process of creating a movie. Not one hundred people can work at the site. Assistant operator, props installer, coordinator, costume designer, tailor, casting director, nature manager, technical consultant, special effects technician, special makeup artist, stuntman ... . And each of them is important in its own way.
There is also a director of extras, understudies, stuntmen, hairdressers, recording engineers, microphone operators, cablemen, mechanics, real estate investors, focus assistants, photographers, illuminators, colorists, graphic designers. The latter know better than anyone else how to shoot special effects in a movie. They are the ones who overlay the images with the subsequent compilation and image correction.
Finally, it is worth telling about such a specialist as a linear producer. This is the person who needs to know, and how to make a good movie, and how to make it popular. He goes hand in hand with the director and screenwriter. It is the linear producer that carries out the creative preparation for the shooting (starting with the writing of the script, ending with the design of the special props). He deals with financial issues, seeking sponsors and funds for filmmaking. It is important for him to be aware of everything - starting with the stage at which the process of sewing costumes is held and ending with the question of whether the crew members were paid a salary.
By the way, this specialist submits to the main producer.Which, in turn, promotes the project and gives recommendations to the entire film crew regarding what and how to do to increase the potential rating of films.
Well, as you can see, filmmaking is a responsible and complex process, worthy of which is available only to professional studios. However, the result is appropriate. Films, the process of creation of which has been approached seriously and responsibly, are gratifying with charges that amount to tens or even hundreds of millions of dollars.