How to avoid pregnancy?
Today, it is much easier for women to plan fertility, since there are several methods of contraception. They not only prevent pregnancy, but also maintain reproductive health, so that later a woman can become the mother of a desired child.
Each method has its pros and cons, and it is important to know them in order to correctly choose a contraceptive option.
Barrier contraceptives, and these include male condoms and female caps worn on the cervix, can protect not only from the onset of unwanted pregnancy, but also from various sexually transmitted diseases. All these advantages will work if the cap does not move or the condom breaks during intercourse. This is perhaps the only drawback of this method, reducing its effectiveness by up to 90% - in the case of using a cap, and up to 80% - of a condom.
Intrauterine contraception includes the introduction of a spiral into the uterus.This affects the onset of pregnancy as follows. The helix causes the uterus to become hypertonic, injures its endometrium, causes inflammation of aseptic character and thus prevents the implantation of a fertilized egg.
In fact, the helix does not protect against pregnancy, it has an aborting effect. This is its main drawback, because even the very idea of abortion is unpleasant for women, even at such a time. The advantages of this method include their performance, it is estimated at 80-90%.
Biological methods of contraception
The calendar method and the method by which the rectal temperature is measured fall into this category. Both of these methods are based on the calculation of “dangerous” days when conception is most likely. The disadvantages of this type of contraception include low efficacy - the methods work only in 50-60% of cases, in the rest - pregnancy occurs.
One of the most effective, but also the most radical ways to protect against unwanted pregnancy is surgical sterilization.It gives a 100% guarantee and can be applied both to women (tubal ligation) and to men (ligation of the seminal ducts).
Until recently, this method caused irreversible processes, but with the advent of hysteroscopy (when the mouth of the fallopian tubes is only blocked), sterilization has gained a reversible effect.
The hormonal methods of protection against pregnancy include pills, patches and injections. Their effectiveness is based on the action of hormones and is about 90%. When taking these drugs (oral contraceptives, mini-pill tablets), ovulation is suppressed and the mucus thickens at the entrance to the cervix, which prevents pregnancy.
Mini-pills are taken without interruption, the combined drugs - 21 days followed by a seven-day break. Plasters - used in the amount of three pieces, one for each week of the cycle, injections - once every three months.
Chemical methods of contraception
The list of chemical contraception includes: candles, gels, ointments, creams. All these spermicides have a detrimental effect on spermatozoa. They are inserted into the vagina shortly before sexual intercourse, which is not very convenient, and therefore considered their disadvantage.Coupled with low efficiency, constituting only 60-70%, they are not recommended for married couples, who often have sex.
However, it is unfair to hush up their merits, which are expressed in their ability to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases by 20-25%. They will also help out when a woman forgot to take birth control pills and thus reduced protection against pregnancy. Spermicides will be able to quickly resolve the situation if the condom and the cap are broken, and will also help those for whom other contraceptive methods are contraindicated for one reason or another.
Some try to avoid pregnancy by interrupting sexual intercourse and consider it a method of contraception. Perhaps, as an exceptional measure, this method can be practiced, but resorting to it constantly is not very convenient for both partners.