How do plants grow?
Each plant at a certain stage of development begins to reproduce similar organisms. This process is called “breeding”. In other words, reproduction is an increase in the number of individuals of one species. This property is characteristic of all living organisms in which nature has the ability to prolong the existence of its own species.
How and what plants multiply
Plants multiply in two main ways: asexual and sexually. Let's talk about each method in more detail.
Asexual reproduction involves a process in which germ cells are not involved. There are two main types of asexual reproduction: vegetative reproduction and spore reproduction.
In the vegetative mode, plants multiply by separating certain parts from the maternal individual. Separated parts develop and turn into independent or, as they are called in scientific literature, daughter organisms. In this case, plants multiply with the participation of a single parent organism.Flowering plants multiply using one of the parts of their body - the root, leaf or stem.
Plants multiply in this way due to a certain kind of cells that develop in their organisms. Such cells are called “spores”. In this way, as a rule, moss-like and fern plants, as well as algae, multiply.
Spores contain the nucleus and cytoplasm. The cells are covered with a shell that provides them with reliable protection from adverse environmental conditions. As soon as the spores get into suitable conditions, they begin to germinate and turn into new plants.
The development of gametes, germ cells, occurs in two parent individuals. Ovules are formed in the pistils, the female genital organs, and the male reproductive cells develop in the male genital organs - the stamens.
As a result of the fusion of gametes, a zygote develops - a special cell containing the hereditary characteristics of the male and female parent organisms. Thus, a child arises with a new set of properties different from the parent ones.
For sexual reproduction in flowering plants, seeds are used. These are underground and above-ground parts of the plant, developing as a result of the fusion of the parent germ cells.In other words, a seed is an embryo with a supply of nutrients encased in a shell.
Favorable conditions are necessary for seed germination, in which the planting material will begin to develop and change. The main factors for seed germination are the availability of a sufficient amount of oxygen and water, as well as the minimum required temperature of air and soil. The optimal combination of these factors will ensure maximum seed germination rate.