Federal Republic of Nigeria: capital, flag, people, language, geography
Federal Republic of NigeriaIt is considered a fairly large state in many ways. For example, in terms of the population that lives in this republic, it leads among other continents. The total number of people who live in Nigeria is about 129 million people. This is 1/8 of the statistics of all registered people in Africa. Therefore, this figure is very impressive for an individual country. Description of Nigeria, geography, climate features and much more - the topic of the article.
Nigeria, the features of which we will consider, has an interesting history of its own development, which is interesting due to many factors. Back in the middle of I millennium BC. er Nok civilization begins to form in the central part of the modern state.At that time terracotta figurines were actively created by local residents, which were made in the form of wheeled carts, horses and horsemen.
After the Nok civilization ceased to exist, its culture was adopted by the Yoruba people. Thanks to him, peculiar associations of Oyo, Ife and the kingdom of Benin were created.
In the VIII century AD er was established on the territory of the central Sahara, the state of Kanem-Borno, which occupied the territory from Libya to Nigeria. But in the 14th century it disintegrated, with the result that the House people settled in separate parts of the former empire.
The first settlements of Europeans in Nigeria are dated to the 15th century. These were the Portuguese, who discovered new lands. But they did not try to implant cultures and their own orders, but, on the contrary, contributed to the development of the Oyo and Benin kingdoms. And only in the nineteenth century, when Nigeria became a colony of Great Britain, foreign rule and English began to be actively planted here.
In 1914, Nigeria, being in the status of an English colony, turned into a single protectorate. But as a single nation, the future Federal Republic of Nigeria was not formed at that time.This was hampered by its territorial division into many states in which different nations lived.
The geography of Nigeria and the local climate
The territory of Nigeria stretches in western Africa from the coast of the Gulf of Guinea to the savannah. In the north, this country is adjacent to Niger, on the west side it borders with Benin. Chad is located in the northeast of Nigeria, and Cameroon in the east.
The climate of Nigeria is subequatorial and equatorial monsoon, high humidity quite often prevails in the air. According to research, the average annual temperature is around 25aboutC. The hottest months in the northern part of the country are March-June. In the southern part of Nigeria, April is traditionally considered the warm month of the year. Then the temperature limit rises to 30-32aboutS. August, on the contrary, is more rainy and cool.
Since the climate of Nigeria, as mentioned above, is sub-equatorial and equatorial monsoon, the winter period is often dry here. It was then that as a result of the impact of the cold wind of the Harmattan, which blows from the northeast, sharp temperature drops occur. For example, in the afternoon it can be 30aboutC, and at night it drops sharply to 10aboutFROM.
The highest point in Nigeria is Mount Chappal Wadi, whose height is 2419 meters. It is located near the border with Cameroon, in the state of Taraba.
The capital of Nigeria
According to historical data, from December 12, 1991, the city of Abuja became the capital of Nigeria. Until that time, Lagos had a similar honorary status.The state of Abuja is located in the central part of the country. None of the so-called ethnic communities prevails in the area, so it retains neutrality.
Abuja was founded in 1828, the architect Kenzo Tange became the main designer of the city. The city has a division into 6 districts. In the center is the residence of the President of Nigeria.
The population of Abuja is about 780000 people, the area - 609 square kilometers.
The capital of Nigeria has a well-developed infrastructure and transport interchange. In fact, it is easy to get to Abuja from all over the republic, where many roads lead from different directions. There is also an international airport. Therefore, a person who wants to visit this area can do it quite easily.
Territorial structure of Nigeria and the form of government
In Nigeria, there is a presidential form of government. The legislative body is the bicameral National Assembly, which includes the Senate and the House of Representatives. Today, the Constitution is in force, which was adopted in May 1999 by the head of state.
More than 30 million km2- The area occupied by Africa. Nigeria - 924,768 km2. The number is pretty impressive. The entire territory of the country is divided into 36 states. Each state has an Assembly Chamber - a legislative body. Resolutions that are adopted at meetings of the Assembly Chamber, come into force only when they are signed by the governor. The term of office of the Assembly Chamber is 4 years. At the same time, according to the law, it must meet at least 181 days a year.
The judiciary in the states of Nigeria is administered by three types of courts: the Court of Appeal customary law, the Supreme Court and the Sharia Court of Appeal.
Flag of Nigeria was adopted in 1960, October 1. It is divided into three flat vertical parts: green stripes on the sides, white in the middle. Greens personify forests, natural resources, white - the world.
On the coat of arms of Nigeria, there are two silver horses holding the shield on which the eagle sits.The shield itself is black, with a forked cross. Horses symbolize pride and dignity, the eagle - force. White cross on the shield -The Benue and Niger are the main rivers of the republic, the black color of the shield is fertile land.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria is famous for its tropical forests, as well as the famous Joe Plateau (cliffs with flat peaks). Also, visitors who have visited this country should visit the metropolis of Lagos. Here, specialized and historical museums, various cultural and historical objects will appear before them. Vacationers are also able to please the fact of a pleasant pastime on specially equipped beaches. It is full of unusual entertainment places where you can spend your free time unforgettably.
Natural resources and main activities
A natural resource such as oil provides Nigeria with a decent economic position. Natural gas, tin ore and other minerals are also mined in this republic. Agricultural products, such as rubber, cocoa beans, and palm oil, are exported in rather large quantities.
The basis of the activities of the inhabitants of this country lies in the development of the agro-industrial sector. Here are created entire enterprises that specialize in the processing of waste generated in the process of agriculture.
The most numerous peoples that live in Nigeria are tiv, fulbe, kanuri and hausa. They predominate in the northern part of the country. All of the listed peoples of Nigeria, except tiv, profess Islam.
Thanks to the militancy of the people of the house and the skillful conduct of their trade relations, their language became widespread in northern Nigeria.
If you look at the eastern part of the country, these peoples of Nigeria live here: Igbo, ibibio-efik and ijo. In the states of Imo and Anabara, most Igbo residents predominate. In Cross River, you can meet a lot of people who belong to the people of ibibio-efik. Ijo is densely populated by the state of Byells. All these people live in small villages, they run their own economy there. Another common feature is the fact that they make important decisions collectively, on community councils.The function of power is performed by their secular or religious leaders.
The state of Benin, which is located in the southwestern part of Nigeria, is home to the Yoruba people, who number about 20 million people.
The official language of Nigeria is English. However, there are also about 400 local languages and dialects in which the inhabitants of a particular people communicate. The most widespread languages of the peoples Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo.
The local language of Nigeria is suitable for disseminating media and communication among residents. Most people living in Nigeria are fluent in at least two languages.
Culture in Nigeria
Talented writers who have always been famous for this country have made a significant contribution to the cultural heritage of Nigeria. Among them are Chinua Achebe, Femi Osofisan, Buchi Emechet, Ben Okri, Daniel Fagunwa.
In cinema art, the Federal Republic of Nigeria has also achieved very tangible success: today it occupies an honorable second place in the production of full-length films. The only country in the world that is ahead of Nigeria in this matter is India.
The music that the people of Nigeria listen to is completely diverse.Each nation inhabiting its territory, their musical preferences, as well as the tools with which they hold their own concerts.
Most in Nigeria are those who adhere to the Islamic faith. They are about 50.4% of all those who live in this republic. But a lot of Christians, about 48.2%. In fact, Christianity in Nigeria is worthy of competition with Islam. The remaining 1.4% of Nigerians adhere to other religions.
What tourists need to know about Nigeria
All those who wish to visit Nigeria, it is necessary to initially decide what kind of holiday they prefer. For example, those who love beach resorts, it is desirable to visit Port Harcourt. Here are just gorgeous sandy beaches. In the center of this small resort town, the museum of the National Traditional Jewelry of the XІX century is installed.
If you prefer urban recreation, you should definitely visit the city of Kano. It is rich in various architectural, historical and cultural monuments. Here you can see the grand mosque and the palace of the Emir. And the Kano market is the most famous in Nigeria.
Enjoy the originality of a country holiday and see the natural parks in the village of Cross River and not far from the city of Aqua Ibom.
Flights to Nigeria are carried out from the capitals of European powers. However, for this you must first obtain a visa. Registration of all documents that allow you to visit Nigeria, takes an average of about one week.