Fallacy is ... Types of Fallacies
How often do people lie? Every day, well, or almost everyone. Think you don't do this? And now count all those cases when you are lying not to someone, but to yourself. All this brings to life delusions. What is this incomprehensible term? Let's see.
Fallacy is the erroneous opinion of a person about anything. A misconception, erroneous conclusions or logical contradictions - all this is a delusion. Each person has a big baggage of false ideas and beliefs that he has to carry with him.
Having understood the definition of delusion, I want to know how a person can get rid of them. It's very simple, you need to rewrite the wrong information in your head to the correct one. Is it hard to do? Very, and sometimes it is simply impossible. A person who has lived most of his life with firm convictions rarely leaves them, even realizing that they are false. Suffice it to recall Copernicus, who was burned for a bold discovery. It was easier for people to admit that a scientist is crazy than to reconsider his view of the world. Misconceptions are not the best comrades, and it is necessary to get rid of them.But to fight the enemy, you need to know him by sight. So we will continue to understand the issue.
The lack of true information on any subject is a fallacy. Due to the lack of reliable information a person can deceive others and engage in self-deception. But this is not always done with malicious intent. What are the types of errors?
- Lucid For example, a person may be mistaken about the economic condition of his country. But at the same time, the individual will have an idea that his knowledge may be erroneous. Why does a person, knowing that he may be wrong, not improve his knowledge? For the reason that knowing everything is impossible. Not everyone needs to study economics and be well versed in the economic development of their state. This knowledge will not help the engineer to better design the ventilation system in the building or the teacher to teach the children.
- Unconscious. If the first type of error is not a fearless one, then the second one can directly affect a person’s life. When an individual knows that he does not know the economy, he has a chance to learn it. But when a person thinks that he knows the economy, but in fact he does not know it, this is where the real problems begin.
From the above we can conclude: it is not so difficult to mislead a person. Who does this? Most often, the person himself tries to create a picture of the world. It is clear that the information is provided to him from the outside, but here everyone is personally involved in the folding of knowledge on the shelves in his head. Fallacy is a lack of information. And what contributes to the emergence of delusions?
- Prejudice. It is difficult to convince a person if he has a clearly formed position on a certain issue. Even if his opinion is false, the strongest arguments will not help.
- Rush. When the decision is made in a hurry, there is not enough time to think about the decision. And it can play a major role in causing misconceptions.
- Lack of energy. If a person is tired and wants to sleep, then he is easily suggestible. It is enough to recall all those studies that say that a person perfectly perceives and assimilates the information obtained before bedtime.
- Lack of knowledge. A person can draw conclusions without bothering to test the reliability of their knowledge. If you do not look at the problem from several sides, the decision that you make can be very one-sided.
- Addictions.A person who loves, for example, the work of Dostoevsky, will not be able to judge his works impartially. The same goes for a person who is obsessed with a band. Addictions - this is what quickly and for a long time forms a person's delusions.
To mislead a person can be different. One of the fairly simple ways is to resort to manipulation. Thanks to this technique, a person can achieve his true intentions without showing them at the same time. Almost all women use this technique to achieve results. When a girl starts to lose in a dispute, and she doesn’t have any normal arguments, she starts up tears. This main weapon touches not only men's, but also women's hearts. Thus, the manipulator can be misleading anyone. This way to achieve their often used by small children. But unlike adult aunts, the child will crank his trick unconsciously. And if children and women mostly manipulate their friends and relatives, then men use this technique in order to oil the people or the authorities.For example, a deputy may make a large charitable contribution to the development of the Internet school. From the outside, this act will seem noble, but in fact a man in this way earns himself a vote in elections.
Who settles the fallacy in the mind?
Does the lack of information prevent people from living? Say about it is difficult. Someone thinks that “you know less, sleep better”, and someone wants to know everything that is happening around. What can be said for sure is that truth and delusion always live alongside. And who settles the fallacy in the mind?
- Help from the side. Most often, suggestions occur during a dialogue between two people. Friends share their thoughts and their worldview, relatives talk about how they are doing, teachers at an institute, school or refresher courses promote one or another field of activity. A person absorbs all this information and forms life values under its influence.
- Self suggestion. Only its creator is to blame for the formation of his false picture of the world. No matter how hard those around you try, it’s impossible to put your thoughts in your head without your will. Is that in childhood.Therefore, most often human delusions are the conscious or unconscious choice of the individual.
This question can be rephrased into one that will be easier to answer. Why do people lie? Any effect must have a cause. If a person lied, it means that he had a good reason. What are they?
- desire to assert itself;
- desire to get rich;
- desire for power;
- the desire to get what is not available;
If we summarize all of the above, we can come to the conclusion that there are two reasons for lying: the desire to avoid punishment and the desire to acquire some benefits.
The most famous misconceptions
A person believes in a well-known lie. Which of the most famous fallacies?
- Ostrich hides its head in the sand. The bird does not do this, and not only in case of danger. An ostrich does not hide its head in the sand at all. The bird eats, head down, and also rests in this position.
- Einstein was a Losers. The Nobel Prize winner was a good school student. The fallacy is based on the fact that the physicist had two in his certificate. But few people say that the unit was the highest ball.