Cromoglicic acid: instructions, analogs and reviews
Cromoglycic acid belongs to the group of drugs that stabilize the membranes of mast cells.
Synonyms (analogues) of this substance are: "High-Krom", "Ditek", "Stadaglitsin", "Ifiral", "Nalkr", "Kromoheksal", "Lecrolin", "Kromogen", "Kuzikrom", "Kromoglin" "Kropos", "Cromosol", "Cromolin".
The drug has a membrane stabilizing, as well as antiallergic effects.
The tool stabilizes the membrane of the provoked mast cells, slows down the entry of calcium, as well as the degranulation and release of leukotrienes, bradykinin, prostagladins, histamine and other biologically active substances. In addition, cromoglicic acid prevents the occurrence of inflammation, bronchospasms and allergies, and also inhibits eosinophilic chemotaxis.
The drug blocks receptors that are specific to inflammatory mediators. Cromoglycic acid (instruction confirms this fact) with prolonged use reduces the number of asthmatic attacks and weakens their course,reduces the need for GCS and bronchodilators.
In patients suffering from mastocytosis, after 2-6 weeks of therapy, symptoms in the digestive organs (vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain) and skin (itching, urticaria, hyperemia) are reduced for three weeks after discontinuation of the remedy.
The disappearance of the manifestations of allergic eye pathologies occurs over several days or several weeks. In the case of year-round allergic rhinitis, the effectiveness of the drug reaches a maximum in 1-4 weeks of therapy.
Absorption of the drug after ingestion is not more than 1%, it is excreted in the urine and feces during the day. With intraocular instillations, it is practically not absorbed into the general bloodstream, and traces of the remedies are found in the aqueous humor of gnlaz and completely leave the body within 24 hours. With intranasal administration, absorption into the bloodstream (total) is less than 7%. In case of inhalation administration, 90% of the agent is deposited in the bronchi and trachea. Absorption from the lungs is about 5-15% of the dose, a small fraction penetrates the gastrointestinal tract, and the remaining amount is exhaled.With mucous membranes, the absorption of the agent is reduced in case of an increase in the amount of secretion.
Associated with cromoglicic acid with plasma proteins by 75%. Excreted in the bile and urine per day. In small quantities enters the mother's milk. The duration of exposure to a single dose is 5 hours.
Preparations of cromoglicic acid in various forms of release are shown at:
- bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis with bronchial obstruction - solution for inhalitas;
- food allergies (in case of proven antigen, as monotherapy or in combination with a diet), mastocytosis, UC, proctitis, coloproctitis - capsules;
- rhinitis allergic (seasonal or year-round), pollinosis - nasal spray;
- conjunctivitis allergic (acute / chronic), keratitis allergic, keratoconjunctivitis, tiredness and overexertion of the eyes, "dry eyes", allergic irritation of the mucous - eye drops.
Individual hypersensitivity, the patient is up to 2 years old (and up to 5 for an aerosol form), pregnancy (especially the 1st trimester), lactation (if the use of the drug is unavoidable, breastfeeding is stopped for the duration of therapy).
Restrictions on the use of the drug are imposed if nasal polyps occur (intranasal form).
In accordance with the numerous reviews of doctors and patients, drugs are well tolerated, but in rare cases, the appearance of unwanted symptoms.
When inhaled with cromoglicic acid, the following side effects may occur:
- skin: dermatitis, rash, photodermatitis, urticaria, vascular edema;
- on the part of the nervous system: tinnitus, malaise, peripheral neuritis, dizziness, tremor, irritability, hallucinations, insomnia;
- Gastrointestinal tract: constipation, nausea, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, abdominal pain, halitosis, flatulence, stomatitis, dyspepsia, glossitis, esophagism;
- the urinary system can react with nephropathy, frequent urination;
- respiratory system: pharyngitis, eosinophilic pneumonia, cough, laryngeal edema, retching, hemoptysis;
- cardiovascular system: chest pain, hypotension, periarterial vasculitis, pericarditis, heart failure;
- bones, joints: joint swelling, myositis, joint and muscle pain, polymyositis;
- others: serum sickness.
When taken orally, adverse events may include:
- Gastrointestinal tract: diarrhea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, vomiting;
- others: joint pain, skin rash.
With intranasal administration:
- Gastrointestinal: swelling of the tongue, mouth taste unpleasant;
- respiratory system: increased secretion of nasal secretions, ulceration of mucous membranes, asphyxiation, cough;
- others: urticaria, headaches, rash, arthralgia, anaphylactic reactions.
Cromoglycic acid (eye drops) can cause the following adverse effects: barley, short-term burning, dry eyelids, visual impairment, conjunctival swelling, tearing, conjunctivitis redness.
Theophylline, beta adrenomimetics, antihistamines and GCS enhance the effect of drugs based on cromoglyceic acid.
Joint inhalations of this substance with ambroxol and bromhexine are not recommended.
Possible introduction: conjunctival, inhalation, intranasal, inside.
Inhalation with the contents of the capsules is carried out with a spinhal four times a day after 3-6 hours. Aerosols and inhalation solutions are also used 4 times a day.
Nasal drops are prescribed for adult patients, 3 or 4 drops every 4 or 6 hours, and children 6 years and older - 1-2 drops every 6 hours.
Upon reaching the therapeutic effect, the interval between doses increases. Nasal sprays are used 4-6 times a day for the 1st dose. The course of therapy is 4 weeks.
Cancel drugs should be gradually over a period of about 7 days.
Eye drops are used four times a day, 1 or 2 drops. If necessary, increase the number of drops.
- Especially carefully means with cromoglicic acid is prescribed for violations of the liver and kidneys.
- Therapy with drugs continues until the end of exposure to the allergenic factor.
- Cancellation of funds is carried out gradually over 7 days.
- Cough due to inhalation is stopped with a glass of water inside. In the case of re-bronchospasm, preliminary inhalations with bronchodilating agents are performed. If the patient is already taking bronchodilators, they should be used immediately before inhalation.
- If the drops on the basis of cromoglicic acid (instruction is attached) contain benzalkonium chloride, patients are not recommended to wear contact soft lenses during therapy.Hard lenses must be removed 15 minutes before instillation. The patient should be warned about short-term visual impairment after instillation.
Preparations based on cromoglycic acid are not used to treat asthmatic status and acute bronchial asthma. The patient should be warned about the need for constant use of funds.
Inhalation is carried out using an ultrasonic, piezoelectric or compression inhaler using a mouthpiece or a mask.
The aerosol can is agitated before use, and during inhalation it is held vertically (the metering valve is located at the bottom).
Inhalation with the contents of the capsules is carried out using a special pocket turbo-inhaler (spinhal), where the capsule with the means is placed. When you press the cap, the capsule is punctured, and during active inhalation, the drug (in the form of powder) enters the respiratory system.
Cromoglycic acid, the prescription for which the doctor must prescribe, is released at the pharmacy only upon presentation of a similar sheet.
Responses of patients indicate that after taking Kromoheksal in the form of eye drops with allergic conjunctivitis, the symptoms disappear very quickly.
Well respond and about a similar tool - capsules "Intal", appointed from food allergies. In combination with a diet effective means, from allergies and there is no trace.