Cacti: species, home care, breeding, advice and disease
Cactus is a popular variety of home plants. The flower is found in almost any home, and if we are talking about places where indoor plants love, cacti are present in large numbers. Care at home for cacti as simple and easy.
Plants from the cactus family 2 thousand species, which differ:
- by form.
Succulents cacti. They store water and nutrients thanks to special fabrics. Distributed in places with a dry and arid climate, where rainfall is rare.
This feature is an advantage, since the water retention property makes maintenance easy. Among other succulents, popular plants include plants such as:
Plants are easy to maintain and do not require constant watering.
Another important feature of succulents is considered to be adaptability. They adapt to any conditions, are durable and do not fade, even if the owner has forgotten about them for several years, which cannot be said about the Croton.
Cacti do not need constant light or stable temperature conditions. The only thing that can negatively affect the condition is the stress that results from neglectful care. To avoid this, follow the rules.
Care for cacti at home
It is easy to care for a flower, if you follow the rules that relate to creating a comfortable environment. Pay attention to:
- temperature and sunlight;
- ground condition;
- dressing and transplanting.
Temperature and sunlight
Most succulents love light and heat, however, this does not mean that the cactus should be kept in the sun. Periodically rearrange it in the shade, otherwise it will get burned. In the wild, cacti grow in the shade of trees or tall bushes, but there are species that are located in the sun, which does not harm them. Optimum conditions are warm air temperatures. On hot days, remove the shade, and after the decline of heat return to the light.
Adjust the amount of solar heat depending on age. Keep young in the sun less than adults.
Plants do not like excessive moisture.This is obvious, because cacti are adapted to hot and dry conditions. Water rarely, and after watering, make sure that the ground is completely dry. It is easy to check the condition of the ground - place a match or a thin stick in it. The first 3 cm should be dry. Only in this case, re-water the plant. Consider and features of the soil. Sometimes dry soil repels water and does not absorb it. Use trays for pots that allow you to nourish the roots below.
The greatest amount of water needed cacti during flowering or in the process of active growth. As a rule, growth begins in the spring and lasts until the end of the summer. In winter and autumn, do not worry about watering, as it is not necessary.
In the autumn and winter, water every 3-4 weeks, and the amount of water should be small only in order to moisten the soil. Obviously, in these seasons, care for cacti is simplified.
Remember, using pots that do not have drainage holes, create an excess of moisture for the plant and it will die.
For plants it is recommended to use simple types of soil. Fit brick chips in combination with standard fillings for pots. Use:
- similar types of soil.
For indoor plants, use 1/3 of a crumb of 2/3 of pot soil. If the plants live outside, increase the proportion of crumbs to 1 to 1 to create favorable conditions.
Garden stores sell ground for cacti. When choosing, consider the growing conditions and the age of the cactus.
It is not necessary to use fertilizers, as growth is carried out without them. Add fertilizer to the soil, as in the case of dratsenoy, I recommend during periods of growth. Use fertilizers for indoor plants and fertilizers of organic origin. The best option - fertilizer granules, which have a good effect on the condition of the soil and nourish with nutrients.
Most succulents have a superficial arrangement of the root system, which is important during transplantation. I advise you to replant the cactus in a pot that differs from the previous one in size. After transplantation, do not water the flower for several days, which will activate the moisture reserves and heal the roots that have been damaged. After transplantation, I do not recommend placing the pot in direct sunlight.Increase the amount of water and sunlight.
Cacti are divided into two varieties:
You can use both species as houseplants, as each has unique species that will complement any home collection. Desert cacti are thorny plants that grow in arid zones. Forest cacti grow in forests in a subtropical and tropical climate. Representatives of both species have beautiful flowers, but differ in growth and care.
Desert cacti are popular due to simple care and breeding. Despite the fact that many consider such a plant unpleasant and dangerous because of the thorns, I note that during flowering they become incredibly beautiful. The first flowers appear 3-4 years after planting. For some species, the period is sometimes delayed.
The health factor is lighting. Desert cacti need sunlight. Properly treat the lighting, and do not leave long in the sun. Gradually "harden" the plant, leaving the sun longer.
Cacti most actively grow at a temperature of 21 degrees and low humidity levels. In winter, the temperature of the content drops to +13 degrees. Natural habitat provides for high temperatures during the day and fairly low at night.
Watering is carried out only when the ground dries to a depth of three centimeters from the surface. It is best to plant in special drained pots, which will improve the circulation of moisture in the soil and improve the concentration of air. Change to a new pot rarely, as the cactus grows slowly. Using small pots accelerates flowering.
Among the common mistakes that make owners of desert cacti - an excessive amount of water in the winter season. In winter, they practically do not need water, and watering in a minimum amount is carried out in order to prevent the soil and roots from drying out.
Because of the excessive amount of water, the roots rot, and if the process has begun, I recommend starting the cultivation of a new plant using the processes of the old one. In the absence of shoots, throw away the cactus, as due to decay it will not be able to grow and bloom and will die.
Forest cacti are common in tropical forests.They grow on other plants. Forest species are known for bright colors. In many ways, they are similar in the care of desert species, but there are differences that should be considered for breeding.
Lighting and temperature
The lighting should be bright, but without direct sunlight, so in summer, put them outdoors in a bright place, but not under direct rays.
During the period of growth, a low temperature is needed, and during inactivity a high temperature.
I advise you to water often, especially before flowering. During the rest period, water as soon as the soil is dry to the touch. Standard potting can be used as primer. Transplant before vegetation period.
What kind of cacti go together?
There is a popular tendency to plant cacti of various kinds in one pot. It is not surprising, because the variety of colors and shapes creates beautiful and attractive compositions.
A popular species that is known for its beautiful flowers and the presence of edible fruits. Opuntia species are low and covered with long and dense spines, the injection of which provokes unpleasant pain.Prickly pear blooms with white flowers, and after flowering edible fruits appear elongated flat.
Keep the cactus in a bright place, but during the summer heat, I recommend cleaning in the shade to avoid burns. The rest of the requirements for care are similar, as in other species.
The next most popular is Mammillaria. Plants have a spherical shape, pink small flowers, located at the top. Spines Mummillaria thin and soft. There are many of them, which creates similarity with hairs. The species does not need special care, and the flowering period begins at an early age, which makes it popular. There are several species that differ in shades of flowers and thorns.
The owner of the largest flowers in size is Echinocactus. Flowers of different shades appear in young plants. The flowers are purple, located at the top. Plant height reaches 45 cm.
Another popular species that blooms from an early age. The sizes are small, due to which the Gymnocalcium is convenient in storage and does not take up much space. Flowers are white, red or pink.
The view with the unique structure of the branches, often becomes the object of attention of lovers of room exotics. The largest species in size, and in natural conditions protected by law. Saguaro supports the livelihoods of living organisms, including birds, and therefore is considered an important plant.
A bright view that is common in tropical forests, with wide branches without thorns. Additionally, it needs moisture, which is typical of all tropical plants. It flowers in bright colors, so it is used to decorate the interior.
Diseases of cacti
Regularly inspect home flowers in time to see signs of disease.
Ensure that the flower has optimal breeding conditions. Special treatment products are being sold, which are intended for the destruction of plant fungi and insect parasites.
The actual problem for the owners is rot. It occurs due to excess water. Ailment is easily distinguished due to the appearance of dark tissue. Infection occurs on the upper part of the plant, but sometimes it begins to rot at the base.
Plant lice, which are often found in houseplants, are also common in cacti. Insects contribute to the appearance of fungal disease. To get rid of parasites, I recommend the use of insecticides.
Thrips are flying insects less than a millimeter in size. They affect color because they take away nutrients. To get rid of thrips, use insect repellents or garden pests.