Black-and-white cows: description and characteristics
The black-and-white cow is considered to be one of the most common in Russia, about 53% of the total cattle population in the country. Refers to the dairy direction and can compete with other breeds for the palm in yields.
Black-and-white cows are characterized by:
- strong, sometimes rough constitution;
- straight, even limbs;
- slightly raised tail;
- in proportion to the elongated body, characteristic of dairy animals;
- flat back with straight loins and a wide sacrum;
- narrow breasts up to 75 cm;
- smooth withers;
- thin skin, pleasant to the touch coat;
- head elongated, with a slightly elongated front part;
- volumetric, very weighty size belly;
- neck medium length with poorly developed muscles, sometimes the skin is collected in small folds;
- cup-shaped udder with asymmetrical lobes, rear nipples close to each other;
- light gray horns darkened at the ends.
The coat color corresponds to the name of the breed: black, with large white spots randomly scattered across the body.
Black-and-white breed of cows is in demand among farmers throughout Russia. There is a conditional separation of the breed, depending on the place of cultivation.
- Central areas. Animals are large, the weight of an adult bull is 900-1000 kg, an adult cow is 550-650 kg.
- Ural regions. Black-and-white cows are characterized by a dry type of constitution, compared with compatriots from other regions look harmonious and light. Productivity is average.
- Siberian region. The cows are small, the average weight of one individual is 500-560 kg. Milk gives little compared with representatives of other regions, but the fat content of the product is quite high.
The black-and-white breed of cows, the characteristics of which make it easy to recognize it among other representatives of the cattle, was bred by crossing local Russian breeds with Dutch ones. The beginning of this process was laid in 1930-1932. At the initial stage, the crossing was absorbing, aimed at obtaining various hybrids.The first representatives of the new breed were characterized by high milkiness, a weak immune system, a strong susceptibility to diseases, and a light bones.
At the second stage, the goal of breeders was to improve the types obtained and eliminate the existing shortcomings. As an independent, the breed gained recognition in 1959. From that moment, there is a rapid increase in demand for it in various regions of the country. Novgorod, Moscow, Tver, Ryazan, Volgograd, Leningrad regions, in which the farmers most of all prefer the cultivation of black-and-white breed of cows.
Depending on the region of breeding, the productivity of cows varies. In non-tribal farms, the yield from one individual is 2800-3500 liters per year. On breeding farms, this figure is higher: from 3500 kg, it can reach 6500 kg of milk. It all depends on the feeding of animals and the level of breeding.
The average fat content of milk is 3.2-3.9%. The highest rates are observed in black-and-white dairy breeds of cows in the third lactation period: 5-6 thousand liters with a fat content of 3.7%.
Slaughter yield in cows is 50%, in fattened bulls 52-53%. Bulls are sent for slaughter at 2 years of age. The meat is tasty, juicy, but compared to other breeds, the quality of the product is on average.
Black-and-white cows are very popular among farmers due to their good health and quick adaptation to climate conditions. They are well tolerated by cold and heat, normally perceived long transitions from pasture to pasture.
Strong, independent cows require careful maintenance, but they are not capricious and are able to fully recoup the cost of food and the maintenance of high-quality dairy and meat products. Breeders in the effort to improve the constitution of cows, increase productivity, pass on the best characteristics of purebred specimens use one line.
What do farmers say about the black-and-white breed of cows? Burenkas are fastidious in food, but with a properly selected diet they will be thanked with high yields. Very calm and leisurely. Good go to contact, peaceful. The cow actively responds to the attitude to itself.It is necessary to talk with her gently and calmly, to stroke the sides and udder. Burenka feels the mood of the owner, she can be transferred to his nervousness. Harsh hails, injuries and shocks have a negative effect on milk yield.
Any changes in animal health, mood, and habits may indicate the onset of the disease or the hunting period. Therefore, the farmer should carefully monitor the behavior of the cows. If she is provided with quality care, then the animal will give high milk yields. Farmers noted this feature: the more a cow gives milk, the lower its fat content.
Housing for the animal should be spacious enough (at least 23 sq. M.), Well lit, without drafts, with a dry, soft bedding and a good ventilation system. Comfortable temperature in winter 6-12aboutC. The leash should not restrict the bore in movements. The room where the cow is located must be kept clean.
For animals, the following activities should be carried out:
- regularly brush wool with special brushes,
- trim hooves,
- daily before and after milking, wash the udder;
- bathe in the warm season.
Only with the observance of the norms of feeding and a properly formulated ration, black-and-white cows will be pleased with high milk yields. The basis of food for cattle should be high-quality hay of legumes and cereals. Silage content - not more than 20% of the total feed. To increase milk production, it is necessary to add root vegetables (beet, pumpkin), concentrates, mineral and vitamin supplements in accordance with the norms. The animal is fed twice in the morning and in the evening.
In the summer, cattle are grazing. An animal should be taught to pasture gradually, over a period of 7-10 days. At this time, avoid overeating juicy food in order to avoid stomach problems in the animal.
The main condition for high productivity is watering with fresh water, at least 3 times a day. Cooking salt is also a guarantee of animal health. This mineral supplement compensates for the lack of sodium and chlorine involved in the process of neutralizing acids and promoting the formation of gastric juice. Lack of sodium in the body of the animal adversely affects the appetite, contributes to growth retardation, reduces the synthesis of protein and fat.Table salt is fed with succulent and rough feed in a crushed form (55-60 g / day per 1 head).
Calves are born weighing 30-35 kg. The average daily weight gain is 650-800 grams, provided that the feeding is properly organized. By the age of 1.5, they reach a weight of about 480 kg. Being early in nature, they actively increase the meat relief and quite early acquire impressive size. Heifers weighing between 320 and 350 kg are recruited in 18 months, which is when they can be used for reproduction.
Young animals are characterized by high survivability. Diseases, including dyspepsia and pneumonia, are very rare in black-and-white cows.
What are the advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the breed include:
- good health - cows easily tolerate diseases, are characterized by high resistance to infections;
- high productivity;
- excellent adaptability to climatic conditions;
- high quality products - lean meat and fatty milk;
- early maturity - by the age of one and a half, the heifers are capable of fertilization, and the posterity is treated with care and tenderness.
- significant differences between breed types;
- rigor to the conditions of detention;
- low fat milk.
The primary value of the breed lies in its almost perfect milk production. Cows of the black-and-white breed in breeding farms with proper maintenance and full feeding give milk yield up to 8000 liters of milk per lactation period per head. The fat content of the product is 3.7%. Good results for the Siberian representatives of the breed: about 6 tons of milk, but at a higher fat content: up to 3.9%. According to the indices, they are inferior to the Ural cows giving 5,500 liters of milk with fat content also about 4%. Under normal conditions, black-and-white cows, as a rule, produce 3000-3500 kg of milk. You can buy such an animal in any region of the country.