Angina pectoris: symptoms, first aid
Chest pain that occurs during increased physical exertion, nervous stress, or active sports is known as “exertional angina,” or “stable angina.” Some patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, do not feel pain at all, but experience fatigue or a feeling of lack of air.
The main manifestation is squeezing, pressing or cutting increasing pain on the left. Patients describe the symptoms in different ways, and the task of the doctor is to properly orient. Often patients do not complain of acute pain, but describe the condition as incomprehensible chest discomfort in the form of compression, compression, heaviness, chest tightness or difficulty breathing. The nature of the pain is paroxysmal, that is, the beginning and end are clearly defined. Angina pectoris is characterized by a pronounced irradiation of pain.Most often they start from the “tip” of the left shoulder blade and spread to the hand, sometimes reaching the little finger. Sometimes the pain creeps up to the neck, goes to the face, giving to the jaw and teeth, less often covers the lower part of the left shoulder blade, the sternum or the epigastric region. Stable angina of exertion is manifested by two more distinctive characteristic features:
- the symptom of a “clenched fist” - the patient, describing the pain, brings the fist to his chest, showing the nature of the pain;
- due to the attack with a sharp decrease in air temperature, discomfort in the chest appears at the moment of going out into the cold from a warm room.
The attack and its duration
Attacks, as a rule, last more than one minute, but not longer than 15. After physical overstrain, you just need to take Nitroglycerin under your tongue to stop the pain. If the seizure is caused by nervous or emotional overload, its duration increases. Patients note that the pain is quickly relieved by standing or sitting. If the patient lies on his back, the volume of the left ventricle increases, the tension of the wall of the myocardium increases, causing an increase in intraventricular pressure and oxygen demand of the heart muscle.
Angina: Nonspecific Symptoms
Vegetative manifestations of the disease are often present: dry mouth, rapid breathing, pallor of the skin, increased pressure, urge to urinate, tachycardia, extrasystole. Heart pains that are not related to stress or cold are called cardialgia.
To stop an attack of stenocardia, a person must take a sitting position, take “Nitroglycerin” under the tongue (1 tablet or 1-2 drops on sugar or a validol tablet). To calm you can drink 30-40 drops of "Corvalol" ("Valocardine") or tincture of Leonurus or Valerian. Increased blood pressure is often not necessary to reduce, as it decreases on its own after the cessation of the attack. If these methods do not help, you should call an ambulance to avoid myocardial infarction and carry out emergency measures in time.